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A Guide To Quranic Contradictions


By Abul Kasem

 

Apr 20, 2008

 


(A few readers wanted to know why I am repeating some contradictions. The answer is: I am not repeating; Allah is repeating many verses; I am just following what Allah had done in the Qur’an—Abul Kasem)

The author can be contacted at [email protected].


 
Introduction

 

This guide is a compilation of contradictory verses in the Qur’an, the holiest book of Islam. Muslims consider the Qur’an as the infallible words of Allah, free of any ambiguities, contradictions, errors and irrationalities. This guide will demonstrate that far from being perfect, free of ambiguities and errors, the Qur’an is replete with hundreds of contradictory statements that will surprise the critical readers of the Qur’an. It is unbelievable that an omnipotent, omniscient, all‑knowing, and all‑powerful Allah will have such a demented intellect to construct so many contradictory passages. 

For easy understanding, the Qur’anic verses are provided in summarized, plain English. For the complete translation please refer to the translations of Yusuf Ali, Picthal, and Shakir or the translation of Hilali and Khan

Many contradictory verses are repeated; it is because of the repetitive nature of the Qur’an. One amazing aspect of the Qur’an is that there may be several contradictions in a single verse. 

Please note that this guide does not address Qur’an’s errors, absurdities, and irrationalities on various subjects such as science, mathematics, astronomy, history, embryology, geology, and cosmology. This is a vast topic and a separate guide is necessary to understand Allah’s expertise on these issues. 

This guide may not be complete. There might be many other contradictory verses which the author might have missed. The author will appreciate if any reader finds other contradictory verses and brings that to my attention. I shall include them in the list to make this guide as comprehensive as possible.
 

Sura 2: Al-Baqara (The Cow)


2:21
Allah created the mankind; they should worship Him.
Contradiction: 3:97, 35:15 say Allah does not need mankind and the jinns; He is free of all want.

2:29
Allah created the earth (first) then He perfected the seven firmaments (heavens); He has the perfect knowledge of all things. (This verse indicates that Allah started creation by creating earth, and then He made heaven into seven heavens. This is how building usually starts, with the lower floors first and then the top floors—ibn Kathir).
Contradiction: 79:27‑30 says Allah created the heavens first.

2:34
All the angels bowed to Adam except Iblis. He was haughty and a disbeliever.
Contradiction: 16:49 says every creature in the heavens and in earth prostrates to Allah.

2:35
Allah forbade Adam and his wife to approach the tree of knowledge. (Allah spoke directly to Adam—ibn Kathir.)
Contradiction: 42:51 says Allah never speaks directly to a human; He speaks either from behind a veil or through a messenger.

2:37
Adam learned the words of inspiration from Allah. Adam was the first Muslim.
Contradiction: 2:131 says Abraham was the first Muslim.
Contradiction: 6:14 says Muhammad was the first Muslim.
Contradiction: 7:143 says Moses was the first Muslim.
Contradiction: 26:51 says some Egyptians were the first Muslims. 

2:38
Allah ordered Adam and his wife to descend on earth and to preach on people whatever message they received from Allah.
Contradiction: In verse 20:123, before sending Adam on earth, Allah told him humans on earth would be enemies of one another. This means there were already people on earth when Adam descended on it. So Adam was not the first human created by Allah. 

2:47
Allah blesses the Children of Israel more than other believers; He has preferred them above all beings.
Contradiction: 3:33‑34 says Allah preferred Adam, Noah, the house of Abraham, and the house of Imran above all beings. 

2:50
Allah parted the sea (Red sea); saved the Children of Israel (i.e., Moses’ people), and drowned Pharaoh in front of the eyes of the Children of Israel.
Contradiction: 10:90 says Pharaoh submitted to Islam.
Contradiction: 10:92 says Allah saved Pharaoh. 

2:52
Despite their sins of idolatry, Allah forgave the people of Moses.
Contradiction: 2:63 says Allah raised the Mount Sinai above the Children of Israel and threatened them to submit to Him.
Contradiction: 7:152 says Allah punished them. 

2:58
Then Allah asked the people of Moses to humbly enter a city (Jerusalem or Jericho—ibn Kathir) through its gate so that they could find all the provisions they needed for their sustenance.
Contradiction: Allah says in 7:137 He let Moses’ people inherit the land east and west, that is, the land of greater Syria. 

2:62
Muslims/Jews/Christians/Sabians—anyone who believes in Allah and the last Day and does a righteous deed will get rewards.
Contradiction: 9:17 says unbelievers will go to hell.
Contradiction: In 3:85 Allah says He only accepts Islam.
Contradiction: 4:150‑151 says Allah will severely punish those who deny Allah and Muhammad and those who separate Allah from His messengers.
Contradiction: in 5:33 Allah commands Muslims to Crucify or behead those who criticize Islam and Muhammad or do not convert to Islam. 

2:79
Those Jews wrote their Book with their own hands, and faked that as the Book from Allah, Allah curses them.
Contradiction: 6:34, 6:115 say none has the power to change the words of Allah. 

2:106
Whatever verses Allah abrogates or causes Muhammad to forget, He replaces them with similar or better verses (Muhammad did forget some Qur’anic verses—Walker, p. 166).
Contradiction: 6:34, 6:115 say none can change the words in the Qur'an. 

2:107
The dominion of the heavens and the earth belongs to Allah; there is no protector besides Him.
Contradiction: In 13:11, 41:31, 50:17‑18, and 82:10 Allah says angels are our protectors and guards.
Contradiction: 5:55 says Allah’s messengers are our protectors. 

2:116
The Christians belief that Allah had begotten a son is untrue; Allah possesses everything in heavens and on earth, everything worships Him.
Contradiction: 3:180, 15:23, 19:40, 19:79‑80, 21:89, 28:58 say Allah inherits from infidels/other creatures. 

2:117
Allah creates instantly, by decree; He says 'be' and it is.
Contradiction: 7:54, 10:3, 11:7 and 25:59 say six days of creation.
Contradiction: 41:9–12 say eight days of creation.
Contradiction: 6:101 says Allah could not create a son for himself because He does not have a consort (a wife or a concubine). 

2:131
Allah asked, and Abraham cheerfully submitted himself to Allah (Abraham was the first Muslim—ibn Kathir.)
Contradiction: 2:37 says Adam was the first Muslim.
Contradiction: 6:14 says Muhammad was the first Muslim.
Contradiction: 7:143 says Moses was the first Muslim.
Contradiction: 26:51 says some Egyptians were the first Muslims. 

2:139
The Islamic, the Jewish and the Christian Allah is the sameAllah, do not argue on this. Allah will reward each group according to their deeds.
Contradiction: 9:30 says Jews and Christians are idolaters.
Contradiction: 3:118, 5:51, 5:57, 58:14 and 60:13 say not to be friendly with unbelievers, including Jews and the Christians. 

2:148
Every nation has a qibla; Allah has given each group of people a law and a way of life.
Contradiction: 25:51 says if willed Allah could have sent messengers to every nation to instill fear; but He didn’t. 

2:167
Those who plead for another chance, Allah will disown them and send them to hell to dwell there forever.
Contradiction: 6:128 says as long as Allah wishes, not forever. 

2:185
As a guide to mankind, Allah sent the Qur’an in the month of Ramadan (the ENTIRE Qur’an.)
Contradiction: 17:106, 25:32 say Allah sent the Qur’an in stages. 

2:219
Wines and gambling are Satan’s handiwork—there are some good but great sins.
Contradiction: 47:15 and 83:25 say Allah will serve Satan’s handiwork, wine, in Islamic Paradise. 

2:221
Do not marry idolatresses until they believe. A believing slave woman is better than a non-believing free woman; do not get your girls married to unbelievers until they (the unbelievers) convert to Islam.
Contradiction: 9:30 says the Jews and the Christians are idolaters, but Allah allows Muslim men to marry their women without converting to Islam. According to ibn Abbas, ‘I do not know of a bigger Shirk than her saying that Jesus is her Lord!’ This means that the Christian women are idolaters. 

2:253
Some apostles (messengers) are above others; to some of them Allah spoke (i.e., Allah has graded His messengers, He had spoken directly to a few of them); to Jesus, Allah gave clear signs and the Holy Spirit.
Contradiction: Allah says in 4:152 He makes no distinctions among prophets. 

2:254
Unbelievers (non‑Muslims) are the real wrong‑doers; they will have no intercession on the last day.
Contradiction: 2:255 says Allah might appoint intercessor for anyone He wishes, including some unbelievers. 

2:255
Allah sustains and protects all that exists. His throne extends over the heavens; no one can intercede without His permission.
Contradiction: see 2:254. 

2:259
Allah caused a man to sleep for a century, then raised him up, and questioned the man how long he thought had been in sleep (in this verse Allah is directly speaking with an ordinary person).
Contradiction: 42:51 says Allah speaks only through a veil or through a messenger.

 

Sura 3: Al‑Imran (The Family of Imran)

3:2
Worship none but Allah; He is the ever‑living, and the sustainer of all things.
Contradiction: 12:100 says Allah allowed Joseph’s brethren and his parents to prostrate before Joseph. 

3:3
Allah sent the Qur’an to Muhammad (the ENTIRE Qur’an).
Contradiction: 17:106, 25:32 say Allah sent the Qur’an in stages 

3:7
Allah has sent down the Book. Only men of understanding will grasp the messages of the Qur’an; some verses are basic some are allegorical; perverse hearts follow allegorical verses to find hidden meanings to make discord; only Allah knows the hidden meanings of the Qur’an
Contradiction: 16:103 says the Qur'an is in clear Arabic. 

3:18
Allah, His angels, and the knowledgeable people bear witness that none is to be worshipped except Him. Maintaining His creation is justice.
Contradiction: 12:100 says Allah allowed Joseph’s brethren and his parents to prostrate before (worship) Joseph. 

3:20
Muhammad's duty is only to convey the messages of Allah (Allah has sent Muhammad to the illiterate Arabs—ibn Kathir).
Contradiction: Allah says in 8:39 if the unbelievers do not convert to Islam fight them. 

3:33‑34
Allah chose the families of Adam, Noah, Abraham, and Imran above all people.
Contradiction: 2:47, 45:16‑17 say Allah favored the Children of Israel above all beings.
Contradiction: 3:42 says Allah preferred Mary above all women. 

3:41: The angel (Gabriel) instructed Zachariya to remain silent for three days, communicating only through signs, and offering two prayers—in the evening and in the morning.
Contradiction: in 19:10 Allah commanded Zachariya to remain silent for three nights. 

3:42
Angels told Mary that she is chosen above women of nations.
Contradiction: 19:17 says one angel, as a man, spoke to Mary
Contradiction: 2:47, 45:16‑17 say Allah preferred the children of Israel above all beings. 

3:45
The angels told Maryam (Mary) that she would give birth to Jesus, a Word (manifestation) of Allah and Jesus will be held in great honor, and he will be nearest to Allah.
Contradiction: 19:17 says an angel, in the shape of a man, visited Mary.
Contradiction: in 21:98 Allah says all objects worshipped by men besides Allah will be in hell, i.e., Jesus will burn in hell. 

3:59
Allah created Adam from dust, Allah said ‘be’ and Adam was there; Jesus looked like Adam (as Allah made Jesus without a father He made him look like Adam, and because Adam had no father or mother, Allah created Adam from dust—ibn Kathir).
Contradiction: 38:71 says Allah created Adam out of wet clay.
Contradiction: 15:26 says Allah created Adam out of sounding (black burnt) clay and mud.
Contradiction: 38:75 says Allah created Adam with His two hands. 

3:67
Abraham was not a Jew, nor a Christian, but a Muslim (Hanif), and Muhammad is the nearest to Abraham.
Contradiction: Allah says in 6:14 that Muhammad was the first Muslim.
Contradiction: 7:143 says Moses was the first to believe in Islam.
Contradiction: 2:37 says Adam was the first Muslim.
Contradiction: 26:51 says some Egyptians were the first Muslims. 

3:78
Some Jews and Christians twisted Allah’s scriptures and passed them as Allah’s messages.
Contradiction: 6:34, 6:115 say none can alter the words of Allah. 

3:85
Allah will not accept any religion other than Islam.
Contradiction: 2:62 says Allah will reward Christians, Jews and the Sabians. 

3:97
Mecca is the station of Abraham: if you can afford then perform pilgrimage (hajj) in Mecca; Allah does not need ‘Alamin’(mankind and jinns).
Contradiction: in 2:21 Allah says He needs mankind to worship Him.
Contradiction: 51:56 says Allah needs humans and jinns to worship Him. 

3:125
In Badr, Allah made a terrific onslaught with five thousand angels (the angels wore white wool and had special markings distinguishing their horses—ibn Kathir).
Contradiction: 8:9 says in Badr, Allah helped the Muslims with one thousand angels.
Contradiction: 3:124 says Muhammad requested Allah to send three thousand angel fighters. 

3:144
Muhammad is no more than an apostle; apostles before him had died.
Contradiction: 4:157 says Allah raised Jesus up; Jesus did not die. 

3:169‑171
Those slain in Allah’s way (in Jihad) do not die; they live in the presence of Allah (in Islamic Paradise), and enjoy His provisions.
Contradiction: 19:70‑71 says every soul, including that of a Muslim, at least for some time, will be in hell. 

3:180
Allah does not like stingy people; Allah will tie the covetous articles like twisted collars in the necks of unbelievers. Allah is the inheritor of the heavens and the earth.
Contradiction: 2:116, 3:189, 20:6, 21:19, 57:2 say Allah is the owner of all things in the heavens and in earth. 

3:189
Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth belongs to Allah.
Contradiction: Allah says in 3:180 15:23, 19:40, 19:80, 21:89, 28:58 He inherits from other infidels and other creatures. 

 

Sura 4: An‑Nisa (Women)


4:5
Take care of the minor orphans’ property and do not handover their property to them while they remain minor (until they are marriageable).
Contradiction: 65:4‑5 says prepubescent girls (minor girls) can be married. 

4:6
Test the orphans for their maturity; release properties to orphans when they are capable of sound judgment (i.e., have attained maturity or puberty, usually taken as fifteen years of age. It is the marriageable age—Jalalyn. The age of puberty is the marriageable age—ibn Abbas).
Contradiction: 65:4‑5 says prepubescent girls can be married. 

4:15
If a woman is lewd confine her in house till death (basis of honor killing in Islam); four believing male witnesses are required to prove a woman’s innocence.
Contradiction: in 24:2 Allah prescribes one hundred lashes for both men and women who perform lewdness. 

4:16
Allah prescribes unspecified punishment for lewdness by men; (homosexuality, gays—ibn Kathir); if the perpetrators repent then leave them alone.
Contradiction: in 24:2 Allah prescribes one hundred lashes for both men and women who do acts of homosexuality.
Contradiction: 4:15 says permanent house arrest, until they die, for women. 

4:18
Inflict the most grievous punishment for dying rejecting faith (i.e., those apostates who die as apostates.)
Contradiction: 10:90 says Pharaoh submitted to Islam when flood engulfed him. 

4:46
Majority of the Jews distort the meaning of words by a twist of their tongues; Allah condemns them.
Contradiction: 6:34, 6:115 say none can alter the words of Allah. 

4:48
Allah forgives every sin except idolatry (shirk).
Contradiction: in 4:153 Allah forgave the idolatry of Moses’ people. 

4:75
Fight against oppression; Allah raises a protector from among the believers.
Contradiction: 9:116, 17:111, 32:4 and 42:28 say Allah is the only protector and helper.
Contradiction: 41:31, 32 say angels are our protectors in this life and the life hereafter.
Contradiction: 5:55 says Allah’s messengers are our protectors. 

4:78
Death will find you even if you are in towers built up strong and high. All things are from Allah.
Contradiction: in 4:120, 38:41 Allah says evil things are from Satan.
Contradiction: 4:79 says evil things are from us. 

4:79
Good things are from Allah; evil things are from one’s own soul. Allah is the witness that Muhammad had been sent as a Messenger to people.
Contradiction: 4:120 and 38:41 say evil things are from Satan.
Contradiction: 4:78 says all things; including evil things, are from Allah. 

4:93
A dreadful penalty (hell, unspecified) is for a Muslim for intentionally killing another Muslim.
Contradiction: 2:178 says whoever kills deliberately must be killed, or if he is pardoned he must pay the blood money. 

4:107
Allah does not like disloyalty.
Contradiction: 63:5 says Allah might forgive the hypocrites if Muhammad sought Allah’s forgiveness for them. 

4:116
Except the idolaters (shrik), Allah forgives whomever He pleases.
Contradiction: 4:153 says Allah forgave the calf‑worshippers of Moses’ people. 

4:120
Satan creates false desires; Satan deceives people.
Contradiction: 16:93 says Allah misleads who He wishes.
Contradiction: 4:78 says all things are from Allah. 

4:150‑151
Allah will severely punish those who deny Allah and Muhammad and those who separate Allah from His messengers.
Contradiction: 2:62 says Muslims/Jews/Christians/Sabians—anyone who believes in Allah and the last Day and does a righteous deed will get rewards. 

4:152
The believers should not make distinctions among the messengers; in the hereafter; Allah will reward such believers.
Contradiction: 2:253, 17:55 say Allah preferred some prophets over others. 

4:153
For asking Moses to show them Allah in public, Allah dazed people with thunder and lightning. Allah forgave Moses people who worshipped the golden calf.
Contradiction: 4:48 says Allah does not forgive idolatry, that is, shirk.
Contradiction: 2:63 says Allah terrorized Moses’ people by raising the Mount Sinai above them. 

4:157
Jesus was not crucified; he did not die.
Contradiction: 3:144 says all prophets before Muhammad had died.
Contradiction: 23:15, 39:30 say everyone will die. 

4:158
Allah raised Jesus up alive.
Contradiction: 21:98 says all objects worshipped by men besides Allah will be in Islamic hell; i.e., Jesus will burn in hell because the Christians worship him. 

4:171
People of the Book are not to commit excesses in their religion; Jesus was only another apostle of Allah, he was the Word (manifestation) of Allah; Jesus is also a spirit from Allah; so, no Trinity.
Contradiction: 4:172 says Allah made Jesus His servant. 

4:172
Christ (Messiah, Jesus) was a servant of Allah.
Contradiction: 4:171 says Jesus is a spirit and Word of Allah.

 

Sura 5: Al‑Maeda (The Table Spread)


5:5
Foods of the people of the Book are lawful for Muslims and vice versa. Lawful in marriage (for Muslim men) are: chaste believing women; chaste women of the Book (i.e., Jewish and Christian women).
Contradiction: 2:221 says do not marry idolatresses.
Contradiction: 9:30 says Christians and the Jews are idolaters. 

5:13
The Children of Israel (Jews) tampered with their scriptures and broke their covenant with Allah; Allah made their heart become hard but Muhammad is to forgive them.
Contradiction: 6:34, 6:115 say none can tamper with Allah’s words.
Contradiction: 9:29 says kill the Jews and Christians unless they pay jizya tax or convert to Islam.
Contradiction: 5:54 says the Muslims must be very harsh and stern towards infidels. 

5:21
Moses said his people should occupy the holy land (of Palestine, Jerusalem or Jericho).
Contradiction: 7:137 says Allah let the Moses’ people inherit the land east and west, that is, the land of greater Syria. 

5:26
Allah made the wicked people (a faction of children of Israel; they numbered 600,000—Jalalyn) to roam aimlessly for forty years (during this time the Torah and the Law were revealed to Moses—ibn Kathir. Moses and Aaron died in the wilderness. Joshua became the prophet sometime after his fortieth year; Allah commanded Joshua to fight the giants—Jalalyn).
Contradiction: 7:129 says Allah let the children of Israel inherit Egypt.
Contradiction: 7:137 says Allah let the Moses’ people inherit the land east and west, that is, the land of greater Syria. 

5:32
Killing one person except for a just cause is like slaying the whole people; saving a life is like saving the whole people (killing here refers to a Muslim killing another Muslim and not humanity in general—ibn Kathir).
Contradiction: in 5:33 Allah commands Muslims to crucify or behead those who criticize Islam and Muhammad or do not convert to Islam. 

5:41
Allah will not purify the hearts of those Jews who distort the meaning of the Book.
Contradiction: 6:34, 6:115 say none can alter the words of Allah. 

5:54
If one turns to be an unbeliever, Allah may bestow His blessings to others who will become Muslims. These Muslims will be humble and friendly to other Muslims but very harsh and stern towards the infidels (unbelievers, the apostates; i.e., these pious Muslims must kill the unbelievers and the apostates).
Contradiction: 5:13 says Muhammad is to forgive and overlook the faults of Jews and Christians. 

5:51
Muslims are not to take the Jews and Christians as friends and protectors.
Contradiction: 5:82 says Christians are Muslims’ closest friends. 

5:55
Real friends are: Allah, His apostle (Muhammad), and the fellowship of pious and charitable believers.
Contradiction: 9:116, 17:111, 32:4, and 42:28 say Allah is the only protector and helper.
Contradiction: 40:31‑32 say angels are our protectors in this life and the life hereafter. 

5:57
Do not take as friends the people of the Book (Jews and Christians), the pagans, and those who mock at Islam.
Contradiction: 5:82 says Christians are Muslims’ closest friends. 

5:69
The believers of the Qur’an, the followers of the Jewish scriptures, the Sabians, the Christians, and those who believe in Allah and the last day shall have no fear.
Contradiction: 3:85 says Allah accepts only Islam.
Contradiction: in 5:33 Allah commands Muslims to Crucify or behead those who criticize Islam and Muhammad or do not convert to Islam. 

5:82
Strongest enemies are the Jews and the pagans; the nearest in love (or friendly) are the Christians.
Contradiction: 3:118 says not to be friendly with unbelievers, including Jews and Christians.
Contradiction: 5:51 forbids Muslims to be friendly with Jews and Christians.
Contradiction: 5:54 says pious Muslims must be harsh and stern towards Jews and Christians, these Muslims must kill Jews and Christians and other infidels. 

5:90
Intoxicants (wine and spirits), stones (i.e., stone/idol worshipping), and gambling (playing chess is a form of gambling—ibn Kathir) are Satan's handiwork.
Contradiction: 47:15, 83:25 say Satan’s handiwork, wine, will flow freely in Islamic Paradise. 

 

Sura 6: Al‑Anam (Cattle) 

6:12
Allah has prescribed mercy on Himself. Undoubtedly, on the Resurrection day, Allah will gather together mankind. They are responsible for their belief.
Contradiction: 14:4, 6:35 say Allah purposely does not guide some people.
Contradiction: 10:100 says no soul can believe without Allah’s will. 

6:14
Allah feeds others, but He does not need any food. Allah commanded Muhammad to be the first person to embrace Islam.
Contradiction: 2:37 says Adam was the first Muslim.
Contradiction: 2:131, 3:67 say Abraham was the first to accept Islam.
Contradiction: 7:143 says Moses was the first Muslim.
Contradiction: 26:51 says some Egyptians were the first Muslim. 

6:34
Apostles before Muhammad were rejected too; but through patience, constancy, and Allah’s help the apostles won. None can alter the words of Allah (Qur’an).
Contradiction:, 2:79, 3:78, 4:46, 5:13, 5:41, 6:112, 41:43 say the Jews and the Christians tampered with Allah’s Books.
Contradiction: Allah says in 2:106, 16:101 He changes the Qur'an through abrogation and substitution. 

6:38
All creatures, including birds with wings, form communities like human beings; they too will be resurrected (that is, these creatures also have souls).The Qur’an did not omit anything (i.e., the Qur’an is complete).
Contradiction: 18:109, 31:27 say all oceans (ink) and all trees (pen) are not enough to write the Quran. 

6:101‑102
Allah has no consort (wife), so He could not have children (sons) (the polytheists thought that the angels were daughters of Allah; Allah does not have any wives—ibn Kathir).
Contradiction: Allah says in 19:21 Mary could have a son without a man (consort), because Allah decreed it so.
Contradiction: 39:4 says if willed, Allah could have a son out of His creation, but He didn’t.
Contradiction: 2:117 says Allah says ‘Be and it is’. 

6:103
Allah is beyond our vision and comprehension; but He sees and comprehends all things. Allah is not visible.

Contradiction: 53:11 says Muhammad, with his own eyes, saw Allah (Muhammad saw with his eyes his Lord—ibn Abbas).

6:112
It is Allah’s wish that every messenger will have men and Jinni devils as his enemies, inspiring each other with flowery words.
Contradiction: 6:34, 6:115 say none can alter the words of Allah. 

6:115
Qur’an is complete in truth and justice; none can change the Qur’an.
Contradiction: 2:106, 16:101 say Allah abrogates and substitutes verses, changing the Qur'an. 

6:128
At the approach of death, Jinni misleads many humans; these misguided men will implore Allah for mercy but Allah will send them to hell to dwell there permanently, except if Allah decides otherwise.
Contradiction: 2:167 says eternally. 

6:130
Allah sends humans and Jinni respectively as messengers to them.
Contradiction: 12:109 says Allah sends only men as messengers.
Contradiction: 27:82 says Allah also sends a beast as a messenger to mankind.
Contradiction: 35:1 says Allah sends angels with wings as messengers. 

6:131
Allah will not destroy a city for their sins when their inhabitants are there (that is, a messenger—ibn Kathir).
Contradiction: 17:16 says Allah destroys a city by giving its inhabitants warning.

 

Sura 7: Al‑Araf (The Heights)

7:20
Satan lured Adam and his wife (Eve) to transgress Allah’s prohibition.
Contradiction: 20:120 says Satan lured only Adam to the tree of eternity. 

7:54
Allah created the heavens (first) and (then) the earth in six days, and then he rose over His throne.
Contradiction: 41:9‑12 says Allah created the earth (two days), the mountains (four days) and the heavens (two days) in total of eight days.
Contradiction: 2:117 says Allah creates instantly.
Contradiction: 2:29 says Allah created the earth first. 

7:77
So they killed the she-camel and challenged Salih to bring Allah’s torment on them.
Contradiction: 54:29 says one person took a sword in his hand and killed the she‑camel. 

7:82
Lot’s people wanted to drive him and his companions (i.e., Lot and his two daughters: Za'ura and Raytha—ibn Abbas) out of their city. (Lot’s people were sarcastic to Lot’s followers that they are a people who want to be pure from men's anuses and women's anuses—ibn Kathir.)
Contradiction: 7:77 and 29:29 says when Lot admonished his people for their sins they challenged Lot to bring upon them the wrath of Allah. 

7:83
Allah saved Lot (including his daughters—ibn Abbas) but not his wife; she received the torment of Allah.
Contradiction: 26:170‑171 says Allah saved Lot and all his followers except an old woman. 

7:127
The chiefs of Pharaoh wanted to know if Pharaoh would allow Moses to spread mischief and let the people abandon their gods. Pharaoh then decreed to kill sons of Moses’ people, but reprieved their daughters.
Contradiction: 28:38 says Pharaoh was the God of his people. They worshipped only Pharaoh and not many gods. 

7:136
Allah avenged the betrayal of covenant of Moses’ people by drowning Pharaoh and his people in the sea.
Contradiction: 10:92 says Allah forgave and saved Pharaoh, and made his dead body a symbol for Pharaoh’s progeny.
Contradiction: 10:90 says Pharaoh submitted to Islam. 

7:137
Allah let the oppressed people (the Children of Israel) inherit (Egypt) the land east and west (this refers to the area of greater Syria—ibn Kathir).
Contradiction: 2:58, 5:21 say Allah let the Moses’ people inherit the land of Palestine and Jerusalem. 

7:143
Allah spoke directly to Moses, but did not show His face; when Moses looked at the mountain where Allah was hiding, the mountain crumbled and Moses fainted; Moses was the first to believe in Islam.
Contradiction: 2:37 says Adam was the first Muslim.
Contradiction: 2:131, 3:67 say Abraham was the first Muslim.
Contradiction: 6:14 says Muhammad was the first Muslim.
Contradiction: 26:51 says some Egyptians were the first Muslims. 

7:152
Those who idolized the calf for worshipping incurred the wrath of Allah.
Contradiction: 2:52 says Allah forgave them.
Contradiction: 2:63 says Allah terrorized the Children of Israel by raising the Mount Sinai above them. 

7:179
Allah has made many men and Jinni for hell, they are worse than cattle.
Contradictions: in 51:56 Allah says He created men and jinns only to serve (worship) Him.
Contradiction: in 35:15 Allah says he does not need human; He is free of all want.

 

Sura 8: Al‑Anfal (The Spoils of War) 

8:9
Allah helped Muhammad with one thousand angels in succession (following one another: Gabriel led five hundred of them, and Michael led five hundred of them—ibn Kathir).
Contradiction: 3:125 says Allah helped Muhammad in Badr with five thousand angel soldiers.
Contradiction: 3:124 says Muhammad requested Allah to send three thousand angel fighters. 

8:38
Allah will forgive unbelievers’ past if they accept Islam; if not, they will face the fate of their forefathers (i.e., exemplary punishment from Allah).
Contradiction: Allah says in 3:20 if the unbelievers do not convert to Islam leave them alone, Muhammad's duty is only to convey the message. 

 

Sura 9: Al‑Baraat (Immunity) or Al‑Tauba (Repentance)

9:23
Unbelieving father, brothers are not protectors; of converts of Islam believers should not take them as guardians.
Contradiction: 17:23, 31:15 say respect parents even if they are unbelievers. 

9:30
The Jewish claim of Ezra (Uzair) as the Son of Allah, or the Christian claim of Jesus as the son of Allah is blasphemous; Allah punishes them.
Contradiction: 2:221, 60:10 forbid Muslims to marry idolaters.
Contradiction: 2:62 says Christians will get rewards.
Contradiction: 5:82 says the closest in friendship are Christians. 

9:71
Pious and charitable believers are protectors of one another; they obey Allah and Muhammad.
Contradiction: 9:116, 17:111, 32:4 and 42:28 say Allah is the only protector and helper.
Contradiction:  41:31, 32 say angels are our protectors in this life and the life hereafter.
Contradiction: 5:55 says Allah’s messengers are our protectors. 

9:116
Sovereignty (dominion) of the heavens and the earth belongs to Allah; He controls life and death; Allah is the only protector and helper.
Contradiction: 3:180, 15:23, 19:40, 19:79‑80, 21:89, 28:58 say Allah inherits from infidels and other creatures.
Contradiction: 9:71 says messengers and the believers are the protectors and helpers.
Contradiction: 5:55 says Allah’s messengers are our protectors.
Contradiction:
9:71 says pious Muslims are the protectors.

 

Sura 10: Yunus (Prophet Yunus)

10:3
Allah created the heavens (first) and (then) the earth in six days (our worldly days—ibn Kathir. In the same measure of time as worldly days since there was no sun or moon at that time—Jalalyn.), and then He ascended on His throne; He regulates all His affairs from His firmly established throne; there is no intercessor except Allah.
Contradiction: 41:9‑12 says eight days of creation.
Contradiction: 2:117 says Allah creates instantly.
Contradiction: 2:29 says Allah created the earth first. 

10:35
Allah, not the idols, guides to the truth.

Contradiction: in 4:78 Allah says all things are from Him.

Contradiction: in 16:93 Allah says He misleads who He wishes. 

10:47
Allah has given each group of people, a messenger, a law, and a way of life.
Contradiction: 25:51 says if Allah willed, He could have sent apostles to every nation to instill fear in them, but He didn’t.
Contradiction: 28:46, 32:3, 34:44, 36:6 say before Muhammad Allah did not send any messengers or Books to the Arabs. 

10:64
None can change the words of Allah.
Contradiction: 5:41, 3:78, 2:79, 4:46, 5:13 say the Jews and the Christians tampered with Allah’ Book.
Contradiction: 2:106, 16:101 say Allah changes the Qur'an through abrogation of verses. 

10:90
When flood engulfed Pharaoh, he submitted to Islam (i.e., Pharaoh became a Muslim).
Contradiction: 4:18 says Allah does not accept submission to Islam at the point of death, if one does not accept Islam before death.
Contradiction: 2:50, 7:136 say Allah drowned Pharaoh.
Contradiction: 10:92 says Allah saved Pharaoh. 

 

Sura 11: Hud (Prophet Hud) 

11:2
Qur’an teaches to worship none but Allah, and Muhammad is a warner who brought glad tidings.
Contradiction: 12:100 says Allah allowed Joseph’s brethren and his parents to worship Joseph by prostrating before him. 

11:7
Allah created the Heavens (first) and the earth (second) in six days; (then) Allah conducts justice from His throne which is above water; you will be raised after death (before Allah created the heavens and the earth His throne was above water—ibn Kathir).
Contradictions: 41:9‑12 talks about eight days of creation.
Contradiction: 2:117 says Allah creates instantly.
Contradiction: 2:29 says Allah created the earth first. 

11:38
Noah’s people ridiculed him for constructing an ark.
Contradiction: 54:9 says Noah’s people expelled him from their town. 

11:42‑43
Noah's son (Noah’s fourth son Yam, he had refused to embrace Islam and join Noah in his ark—ibn Kathir) was drowned in the flood because he was a disbeliever.
Contradiction: 21:76 says Allah saved Noah’s family that included his son. 

11:69
Abraham entertained the two angels (the term ‘two messengers’ in this verse means two angels—ibn Kathir) guests with a roasted lamb, but the messengers refused to eat.
Contradiction: 25:7 says all Allah’s messengers roamed markets and ate ordinary human food. 

11:77
Angels, as Allah’s messengers, came to Prophet Lot.
Contradiction: 12:109, 21:7 say Allah sends only men as His messengers.
Contradiction: 27:82 says Allah also sends a beast as a messenger to mankind.
Contradiction: 6:130, 22:75 say Allah sends jinns and angels as His messengers to their respective species.

 

Sura 12: Yusuf (Prophet Joseph)

12:19
A passing caravan’s water‑drawer rescued Joseph.
Contradiction: 12:20 says Joseph’s brothers sold him as a slave for a miserly price. 

12:100
Joseph thought Satan had created enmity between him and his brethren; Joseph’s parents and his brothers prostrated before Joseph.
Contradiction: 2:255, 3:2, 3:18, 11:2, 20:98, 40:62, 40:65 say humans must prostrate (worship) only to Allah and no one else. 

12:109
Allah sends revelations to men only.
Contradiction: 27:82 says Allah also sends a beast as a messenger.
Contradiction: 35:1 says Allah sends angels with wings as messengers.
Contradiction: 6:130, 11:69, 11:77, 22:75 say Allah also sends jinns and angels as messengers. 

12:111
Qur’an is in detail, and confirms what went before; it is a guide and mercy to the believers; Joseph's story is not an invented tale but a confirmation of Allah’s guide and mercy.
Contradiction: 17:106, 25:32 say Allah sent the Qur’an in stages.

Sura 13: Ar‑Rad (Thunder)

13:11
There are guards (angels) in front and behind each person.
Contradiction: 2:107, 29:22 say Allah is the only protector. 

13:38
Previous messengers also had wives and children; no messenger can produce a miracle without Allah’s authorization. Allah decrees every matter.
Contradiction: Jesus had no wife or children. 

13:39
Allah removes (abrogates) what He wills, and fixes (replaces) what He wills; Allah has kept the Mother of the Book.
Contradiction: 6:34, 6:115 say none can change the words of the Qur'an.

 

Sura 14: Ibrahim (Prophet Abraham) 

14:4
Allah sends His messages only in the language of His apostle’s people in order to make the message clear to them. Allah misguides whom He pleases.
Contradiction: 10:35 says Allah Himself guides mankind to the truth.
Contradiction: 37:147‑148 says Allah sent Yunus to more than hundred thousand people of Nineveh, in the region of Mosul. 

 

Sura 15: Al‑Hijr (The Rocky Tract) 

15:23
Allah controls life and death; He will inherit all things on earth.
Contradiction: 3:189, 57:2 say Allah is the owner of all things in the heavens and in the earth. 

15:26
Allah created the man from sounding (i.e., burnt) clay from mud, and shaped him like a potter’s clay.
Contradiction: 3:59 says Allah created Adam from dust.
Contradiction: 38:71 says Allah created Adam out of wet clay. 

15:29
Allah completely fashioned the first man (Adam), then breathed the soul which Allah had created for him (Adam); then Allah asked the angels to bow down to a live man created by Him.
Contradiction: 32:9 says Allah breathed His own (not a soul specially created) soul into Adam.

 

Sura 16: An‑Nahl (The Bee) 

16:36
Allah sent apostles to every people or community or nation.
Contradiction: 29:27 says Allah gave prophet hood only to Abraham’s progeny.
Contradiction: Allah says in 28:46, 32:3, 34:44, 36:6 before Muhammad, He did not send any messengers to the Arabs. 

16:43
Allah chooses only men (human beings) to be His messengers.
Contradiction: in 11:69 Allah says he sent to Abraham angels as messengers.
Contradiction: 27:82 says Allah sends a beast as a messenger. 

16:49
Every creature in the heavens and in earth, including the angels, prostrates to Allah and obeys Him.
Contradiction: 2:34 says Iblis, the Satan, did not prostrate before Adam; he disobeyed Allah.
Contradiction: 17:61 says all angels except Iblis prostrated before Adam. 

16:89
On the resurrection day, Allah will appoint Muhammad as the witness of all other prophets, who were the witnesses for their respective people; Qur’an explains all things.
Contradiction: 17:106, 25:32 say Allah sent the Qur’an in stages. 

16:101
Allah substitutes one revelation with another; Allah has the mother of the Book (the original Qur’an).
Contradiction: 6:34, 6:115 says none can change the words in the Qur'an. 

16:103
Some people accused Muhammad of learning the Qur’an from a foreigner, but Qur’an is in pure and clear Arabic.
Contradiction: 3:7 says only Allah knows the hidden meanings, and only the men of understanding will grasp the Qur’an. 

 

Sura 17: Bani Israel (The sons of Israel) or Al‑Isra (The Night Journey) 

17:15
Whoever does good deeds will be guided, whoever goes astray is due to his detriment; no one can bear another person's burden. Allah does not punish a population until He sends a messenger to them.
Contradiction: 11:110 says Allah intentionally created dispute about Moses’ Book.
Contradiction: 16:25 says Allah will doubly punish the arrogant infidels for their unbelief and for misleading others.
Contradiction: 20:129 says Allah could destroy the unbelievers instantly.
Contradiction: 29:13 says unbelievers are to bear the burden of their own sins, as well as the burden of deluding others. 

17:16
When Allah decides to destroy a population, He warns its leaders, they indulge in insolence for a brief period, and then Allah inflicts on them an utter destruction.
Contradiction: 6:131 says Allah does not destroy a city when its inhabitants are in it. 

17:23
Worship only Allah, and be kind to aging parents in your care; respect them and do not shout at them.
Contradiction: 9:23, 29:8, 58:22 say show no love of friendship to the parents if they criticize Islam or Muhammad. 

17:55
Allah is discriminatory; he prefers some prophets to others.
Contradiction: 4:152 says Allah makes no distinctions among prophets. 

17:61
Allah created Adam from clay. Commanded by Allah, all the angels prostrated to Adam except Iblis. Iblis, the Satan was upset that Allah placed Adam superior to him.
Contradiction: 16:48 says even the shadows of all objects (unbelievers included) prostrate to Allah.
Contradiction: 16:49 every creature in the heavens and in earth, including angels prostrate only to Allah. 

17:86
If willed, Allah could withdraw (cancel) His revelations (Qur’an) to Muhammad. In that case, Muhammad would have no protection from Allah.
Contradiction: 6:34, 6:115 say none can change the words in the Qur'an. 

17:103
Because Pharaoh evicted the Children of Israel (from Egypt), Allah drowned him and all his men.
Contradiction: 10:92 says Allah saved Pharaoh. 

17:106
For easy recital, the Qur’an is divided into parts; it is revealed in stages.
Contradiction: 2:185, 3:3, 12:111, 16:89, 43:4, 97:1 indicate Allah sent the ENTIRE Qur’an in one night. 

17:111
Allah has no children; He does not share His authority and power with anyone else; He is the only protector and helper.
Contradiction: 41:31, 32 say angels are our protectors in this life and the life hereafter.
Contradiction: 5:55 says Allah’s messengers are our protectors. 

 

Sura 18: Al‑Kahf (The Cave) 

18:31
Muslims will be in Gardens of eternity (Eden), beneath which rivers flow. Allah adorns the residents of the Gardens with bracelets (bangles) of gold, green garments, fine silk, and comfortable furnishing.
Contradiction: 39:73 says one garden in Islamic Paradise.
Contradiction: 22:23, 35:33 say Muslims will wear bracelets/bangles of gold and pearls. 

18:109
An ocean of ink is not enough to write all of Allah’s words. (This means the Qur’an is not complete—Walker, p. 165.)
Contradiction: 6:38 says the Qur’an is complete, nothing has been left out. 

 

Sura 19: Maryam (Mary) 

19:10
When Zachariah requested for the appropriate sign, Allah told him not to speak to people for three consecutive nights.
Contradiction: 3:41 says three days.  

19:17
An angel, as a man, appeared before Mary. (It was Gabriel, he appeared to her complete and perfect in the shape of a man. Gabriel is Allah’s Ruh—ibn Kathir.)
Contradiction: 3:43, 45 say several angels visited Mary. 

19:40
Ultimately, Allah will inherit the earth and all things in it; and everyone will have to return to Allah.
Contradiction: 2:116, 3:189, 20:6, 21:19, 57:2 say Allah is the owner of all things in the heavens and on earth and under soil. 

19:53
Allah made Moses’ brother, Aaron (Harun) a prophet.
Contradiction: 20:29‑32 says Aaron was a partner of Moses.
Contradiction:  25:35 says Allah appointed Aron a minister.
Contradiction: 28:33‑34 say Allah made Aaron Moses’ assistant/helper. 

19:67
Before Allah created a man, the man was nothing.
Contradiction: 52:35 says humans were not created out of nothing. 

19:71
Every soul (this includes all Muslim) must pass through hell at least for some time; this is a decree from Allah.
Contradiction: 3:169‑171 says those Muslims who die in jihad will go to Islamic Paradise immediately.
Contradiction: 66:8 says if you repent and embrace Islam Allah will send you to Islamic Paradise straight away. 

19:80
Allah confiscates (inherits) all the property (wealth and children) of the unbelievers; they will be alone on the day of resurrection.
Contradiction: 2:116, 3:189, 20:6, 21:19, 57:2 say Allah owns all things in heavens and in earth and between them. 

 

Sura 20: Ta Ha 

20:6
Everything in heavens and on earth, and in between them and everything under the soil belongs to Allah.
Contradiction: In 3:180, 15:23, 19:40, 19:80, 21:89, 28:58 Allah says He will inherit from the infidels/other creatures. 

20:29‑32
Moses requested Allah to make his brother Aaron to be a partner of him to speak with Pharaoh.
Contradiction: 19:53 says Allah made Aaron a prophet. 

20:36
Allah granted Moses’ request (i.e., Allah made Aaron a partner of Moses), and reminded Moses of His previous favor to him.
Contradiction: 19:53 says Allah made Aaron a prophet. 

20:37‑39
Allah’s previous favor to Moses was the instruction to Moses’ mother to put him inside a wooden chest and to let it float in river. Allah did this to save Moses’ life from his enemy.
Contradiction: 40:25 says Pharaoh ordered the killing of infants after Moses became an adult. 

20:78
When Pharaoh and his troops pursued Moses and his followers, Allah closed the sea (Red sea) and he was drowned.
Contradiction: 10:90 says Pharaoh submitted to Islam.
Contradiction: 10:91 says it was too late for Pharaoh to submit to Islam.
Contradiction: 10:92 says Allah saved Pharaoh. 

20:98
Worship none but Allah; He has the full knowledge of all affairs.
Contradiction: 12:100 says Allah allowed Joseph’s brethren and his parents to worship Joseph by prostrating before him. 

20:129
Because of a previous promise of temporary respite, Allah would have destroyed the unbelievers in an instant.
Contradiction: 17:15 says Allah does not punish a population until He sends a messenger.  

 

Sura 21: Al‑Anbiyaa (The Prophets) 

21:7
Allah sends only men as apostles; Muhammad can confirm this by asking those who follow the Torah and the Gospel.
Contradiction: 27:82 says Allah also sends a beast as a messenger to mankind.
Contradiction: 35:1 says Allah sends angels with wings as messengers.
Contradiction: 6:130, 11:69, 11:77, and 22:75 say Allah also sends jinns and angels as messengers. 

21:8
All apostles were flesh‑and‑blood men who ate food and were subject to death.
Contradiction: 11:69 says messengers sent to Abraham did not eat human food. 

21:19
All that exists in the heavens and in earth belongs to Allah.
Contradiction: In 3:180, 15:23, 19:40, 19:80, 21:89, 28:58 Allah says He will inherit from the infidels/other creatures. 

21:30
Heavens and earth were joined together as one solid mass then Allah rent them asunder. Allah made every living being from water.
Contradiction: 41:11 says Allah joined the heavens and the earth.
Contradiction: 52:35 says Allah created humans out of nothing.
Contradiction: 38:71 says Allah created Adam out of wet clay. 

21:76
Allah listened to Noah’s cry, and saved Noah and his family from the flood.
Contradiction: 11:42‑43 says Allah drowned Noah’s son. 

21:81
Allah gave Solomon the capability to control and direct violent and unruly wind.
Contradiction: 38:36 says softly‑blown wind. 

21:89
Zacharia implored Allah for a son; Allah is the best of inheritors.
Contradiction: 2:116, 3:189, 20:6, 21:19, 57:2 say Allah owns all things in the heavens and in earth. 

21:98
Unbelievers and their idols are fuel for hell; they will go to hell.
Contradiction: 6:108 says Muhammad must not disparage the idols of the pagans, lest they disparage Allah.
Contradiction: 3:45, 4:158 say Jesus will be close to Allah, even though the Christians worship Jesus. 

 

Sura 22: Al‑Hajj (The Pilgrimage)

22:23
Allah will admit the believers in the gardens (many gardens in paradise) beneath which rivers flow; they will be adorned with bracelets (bangles) of gold and pearls.
Contradiction 76:21 says they will wear bracelets of silver. 

22:47
The unbelievers challenged Muhammad to hasten on to them Allah’s punishment; a day for Allah is like a thousand human years; Allah will hasten His punishment.
Contradiction: 70:4 says one day of Allah equals 50,000 human years. 

22:75
Allah chooses messengers from men and angels.
Contradiction: 12:109, 21:7 say Allah sends only men as messengers.
Contradiction: 27:82 says Allah also sends a beast as a messenger to mankind.
Contradiction: 35:1 says Allah sends angels with wings as messengers. 

 

Sura 23: Al‑Muminun (The Believers) 

23:14
Sperm is transformed into a clot of congealed blood, then the fetus becomes a lump, then bones, then Allah clothes bones with flesh then into another creature; Allah is the best of creators.
Contradiction: 39:62 says Allah is the only creator. 

23:15
Every human must die.
Contradiction: 4:157 says Jesus did not die, Allah took him up. 

23:101‑102
There will be no more relationship when the trumpet is sounded; no question. Allah will use a balance to judge. Those with heavy balance (good deeds) will be successful (they will be in Islamic Paradise).
Contradiction: 52:25 says the believers will chit‑chat with one another.
Contradiction: 37:27 say the unbelievers will question one another. 

 

Sura 24: Al‑Nur (Light) 

24:2
Punishment for adultery or fornication (both men and women) is one hundred lashes in front of the believers; show no mercy to them.
Contradiction: 4:15 says life‑term house confinement for women. 

24:5
False accusers can give evidence, if they repent, and if they are forgiven.
Contradiction: 24:4, 24:23 say no forgiveness towards the slanderers of chaste women. 

24:23
Grievous penalty and curse are for those who slander a chaste woman (i.e., no forgiveness for slanderer of chaste women).
Contradiction: 24:5 says Allah allows forgiveness towards the slanderers of chaste women if they repent. 

 

Sura 25: Al‑Furqan (The Criterion) 

25:20
All the apostles sent by Allah before Muhammad were ordinary men too; they ate food and roamed markets; Allah tests some apostles, so Muhammad must bear with patience.
Contradiction: 27:82 says Allah also sends a beast as a messenger.
Contradiction: 35:1 says Allah sends angels with wings as messengers.
Contradiction: 6:130, 11:69, 11:77, 22:75 say Allah sends jinns and angels as messengers.
Contradiction: 11:69‑70, 51:24–28 say the angel‑messengers sent to Abraham did not eat food. 

25:32
The disbelievers question why Allah did not send the ENTIRE Qur’an. The Qur’an is revealed slowly, in parts, in well-arranged stages, so that Muhammad could memorize.
Contradiction: 2:185, 3:3, 12:111, 16:89, 43:4, 97:1 indicate Allah sent the ENTIRE Qur’an in one night. 

25:35
Allah sent Moses the Book (Torah—Jalalyn) and made his brother Aaron, his assistant (minister).
Contradiction: 19:53 says Allah made Aaron a prophet.
Contradiction: 26:13 says Moses requested Allah that Aaron be made his helper. 

25:51
If Allah willed, He could have sent apostles to every nation, but He didn’t.
Contradiction: 2.148, 10:47 16:36 say Allah sent separate messenger to each nation. 

25:59
Allah created the heavens (first) and (then) the earth and (then) all things in between in six days; then He rose on His Throne.
Contradiction: 41:9‑12 says Allah created the heavens and the earth in eight days.
Contradiction: 2:117 says Allah creates instantly.
Contradiction: 2:29 says Allah created the earth first. 

 

Sura 26: Al‑Shuaraa (The Poets) 

26:13
In the presence of Pharaoh, Moses was scared to speak alone; he requested Allah that Aaron (his brother) be with him (appoint Aaron as prophet, instead of Moses—Maududi translation.)
Contradiction: 20:29‑32, 25:35 say Allah made Aaron a partner of Moses. 

26:51
Pharaoh’s magicians declared their faith in Allah (i.e., they became Muslims) and sought His forgiveness. (They were the first among the Egyptians to believe in Islam; so Pharaoh killed them all—ibn Kathir.)
Contradiction: 2:131 says Abraham was the first Muslim.
Contradiction: 2:37 says Adam was the first Muslim.
Contradiction: 6:14 says Muhammad was the first Muslim.
Contradiction: 7:143 says Moses was the first Muslim.

 

26:66
Allah drowned the Pharaoh and his army.
Contradiction: 10:92 says Allah forgave and saved Pharaoh. 

26:157
Salih’s pople killed the she-camel, they became repentant.
Contradiction: 54:29 says one person killed the she‑camel. 

26:167
Unless he stopped preaching Lot’s people threatened to banish him.
Contradiction: 29:29 says Lot’s people wanted Lot to bring upon them the wrath of Allah. 

26:170‑171
Allah saved Lot and all his followers, except an old woman.
Contradiction: 7:83 says Allah saved Lot’s people except Lot’s wife. 

 

Sura 27: Al‑Naml (The Ants) 

27:56
Lot’s people wanted to banish him from their town (Lot and his two daughters: Za'ura and Raytha—ibn Abbas).
Contradiction: 29:29 says Lot’s people wanted Lot to bring upon them the wrath of Allah. 

27:82
Allah will create a beast from earth to talk to the unbelievers after they have been punished (Allah might consider sending a beast as a messenger to humans. The beast will come with the mast of Moses—ibn Abbas. The beast will preach in Arabic—Jalalyn.)
Contradiction: 12:109, 21:7‑8, 25:20-21 say Allah sends only men as messengers.
Contradiction: 35:1 says Allah sends angels with wings as messengers.
Contradiction: 6:130; 11:69, 11:77, 22:75 say Allah sends jinns and angels as messengers. 

 

Sura 28: Al‑Qasas (The Narration) 

28:33‑34
Moses was afraid of being punished by Pharaoh for killing an Egyptian; he was reluctant to face Pharaoh, and sought Allah’s permission to bring along with him his brother Aaron.
Contradiction: 26:13 says Moses requested Allah to make Aaron a prophet instead of him. 

28:35
Allah agreed to appoint Aaron, Moses’ brother, to be his assistant, and assured Moses’ victory against the Pharaoh.
Contradiction: 19:53, 26:13 says say Allah made Aaron a prophet. 

28:38
Pharaoh said he was the God and ordered his Minister, Haman, to build a lofty tower to have a look at Moses’ Allah.
Contradiction: 7:127 says Pharaoh’s people worshipped many gods. 

28:40
Allah flung Pharaoh and his soldiers into the sea (Allah drowned them in the sea in a single morning, and not one of them was left—ibn Kathir).
Contradiction: 10:92 says Allah saved Pharaoh. 

28:46
Before Muhammad, Allah did not send any messengers to the Arabs.
Contradiction: 10:47, 16:35‑36, 35:24 say Allah sent messengers to every people. 

28:49

Allah challenged if the unbelievers could produce a book better than the two kinds of magic (Moses and Aaron as well as the Torah and the Qur’an—ibn Kathir) then Muhammad would have followed that book.
Contradiction: 2:23, 10:38 say Allah challenged the unbelievers to produce one Sura similar to the Qur’an.
Contradiction: 11:13 says Allah challenged the unbelievers to compose ten Suras similar to the Qur’an.
Contradiction: in 17:88 Allah challenged the entire mankind and the jinni to produce the entire Qur’an.
Contradiction: 52:34 says Allah challenged the unbelievers to compose a book similar to the Qur’an. 

28:58
Allah destroyed many populations; rendered many lands into deserts, and then Allah became the heir (inherited) of those lands.
Contradiction: 2:116, 3:189, 20:6, 21:19, 57:2 say Allah is the owner of all things in heavens and on earth and the space between them. 

 

Sura 29: Al‑Ankabut (The Spider) 

29:8
Parents and children are not to obey each other if either party worships other than Allah.
Contradiction: in 17:23, 31:15 Allah asks the new converts to respect their biological parents and siblings even if they remain idolaters/unbelievers. 

29:13
Unbelievers are to bear the burden of their own sins, as well as the burdens of deluding others.
Contradiction: 11:110 says Allah intentionally creates controversy.
Contra diction: 17:15 says whoever goes astray is due to his detriment; no one can bear another person's burden.
Contradiction: 20:129 says Allah would have destroyed the unbelievers instantly, but He didn’t. 

29:27
Allah gave Prophethood to Isaac (younger son of Abraham), Jacob (Isaac’s son, i.e., the grandson of Abraham) and Abraham's progeny (Ismail, the eldest son of Abraham).
Contradiction: 16:36 says Allah gave prophethood from among every community. 

29:29
When Lot admonished his people for their sinful acts of sodomy and highway robbery; they challenged Lot to bring to them the wrath of Allah.
Contradiction: 7:82, 26:167, 27:56 say Lot’s people wanted to banish Lot from their town. 

 

Sura 30: Al‑Rum (The Roman Empire, The Greeks) 

30:9
Allah had destroyed many powerful and resourceful nations of the past; Allah did not wrong the unbelievers, but they wronged their souls themselves.
Contradiction: 35:8 says Allah guides who He wishes to guide. 

 

Sura 32: As‑Sajdah (Adoration) 

32:3
The Qur’an is not forged; it is a warning to people who had no apostle before Muhammad (that is, Qur’an is for the people of Arabian Peninsula. The Qur'an is for the Quraysh to whom no messenger came before—ibn Abbas.)
Contradiction: 10:47, 16:36, 35:24 say Allah sent messengers to every people. 

32:4
Allah created the heavens (first) and (then) earth and (then) all between them in six days; (then). He is firmly established on His throne; He is the only protector and helper.
Contradiction: 41:9‑12 says Allah created the heavens and the earth in eight days.
Contradiction: 2:117 says Allah creates instantly.
Contradiction: 5:55 says Allah’s messengers are the protectors and helpers.
Contradiction: in 13:11, 41:31, 50:17‑18, and 82:10 Allah says angels are our protectors. 

32:5
Allah rules all affairs from heaven to earth; it takes one day (one thousand years) for any affair to reach Allah’s attention; so, a day is one thousand human years to Allah’s reckoning.
Contradiction: 50:16 says Allah is closer than the jugular vein.
Contradiction: 57:4 says Allah is on His Throne.
Contradiction: 70:4 says one day of Allah is 50,000 human years. 

32:9
Allah fashioned the first man (Adam) in due proportion, breathed His soul into him and gave him faculties of hearing, sight, and feeling.

Contradiction: 15:29 says Allah breathed into Adam a soul especially created for Adam.

 

Sura 34: Saba (The City of Saba) 

34:44
Before the Qur’an, Allah did not send any religious books to the Arab pagans, nor did Allah send any prophets to them before Muhammad.
Contradiction: 10:47, 16:36, 35:24 say Allah sent messengers to every people.

 

Sura 35: Fatir (The Creator) or Malaika (The Angels) 

35:1
Allah created the heavens and the earth (out of nothing—Yusuf Ali), and added to His creation as He pleased. He appointed angels with up to four wings of two or three or four as messengers.
Contradiction: verses 12:109, 21:7, 2520‑21 say Allah sends only men as messengers.
Contradiction: 27:82 says Allah sends a beast as a messenger. 

35:8
Whoever wants to go astray Allah will lead him there, and whoever wants to be guided, He will guide him (whatever he admires and sees as good in his own desires becomes his religion—ibn Kathir).
Contradiction: 30:9 says an individual wrongs his own soul, not Allah. 

35:24
There is no community on whom Allah did not send a messenger.
Contradiction: 28:46, 32:3, 34:44, 36:6 say before Muhammad Allah did not send any messengers to the Arabs. 

35:33
The believers will be in Gardens of Eternity; they will be adorned with bracelets (bangles) of gold and pearls.
Contradiction: 39:73 says there is one garden in Islamic Paradise.
Contradiction: 76:21 says bracelets/bangles of silver, and their garments will be of silk. 

 

Sura 36: Ya‑Sin 

36:6
The Quraysh received no apostle before Muhammad.
Contradiction: 10:47, 16:36, 35:24 say Allah sent messengers to every people. 

 

Sura 37: As‑Saffat (Those ranged in Ranks) 

37:62‑66
In Islamic hell unbelievers will eat the bitter Zaqqum fruit.
Contradiction: 88:6 says the unbelievers will eat only Dari tree.
Contradiction: 69:36 says the unbelievers will eat only pus and filth. 

37:125
Elias admonished his people for worshipping Baal (a sun god) instead of Allah, the best of creators.
Contradiction: 39:62 says Allah is the only creator. 

37:145
Allah made the fish throw an emaciated Jonah into a desert.
Contradiction: 68:49 says, to show mercy, Allah kept Jonah inside the fish’s belly; He did not throw Jonah into a desert. 

37:147‑148
Allah sent Jonah (Yunus) to more than a hundred thousand people to believe in him. (After his rescue from the fish’s belly Allah sent him to the people of Nineveh, in the region of Mosul—ibn Kathir).
Contradiction: 14:4 and 30:47 say Allah sends His messengers only to their own people.

 

Sura 38: Sad  

38:71
Allah informed the angels that He was about to create a man from wet clay.
Contradiction: 3:59 says Allah created Adam out of dust.
Contradiction: 15:26 says Allah created Adam out of black burnt clay.
Contradiction: 19:67 says Allah created human out of nothing.
Contradiction: 21:30 says Allah created all living beings from water. 

38:75
Allah has two hands; He created Adam with His two hands; so why did Iblis refrain from worshipping Adam?
Contradiction: 3:59 says Allah says ‘be’ and it is.

 

Sura 39: Az‑Zumar (The Crowds, The Throngs) 

39:4
If willed, Allah could have chosen for Himself a son out of His creation.
Contradiction: 6:101‑102 says Allah could not have children because He has no consort. 

39:30
Just like any other men, Muhammad will surely die.
Contradiction: 4:157 says Jesus did not die; Allah raised him up. 

39:43
The idols have no power or intelligence (i.e., the idols are dumb); so they cannot intercede; only Allah can intercede.
Contradiction: 6:108 says Muhammad must not disparage the idols of the pagans, lest they disparage Allah. 

39:62
Allah is the creator of all things; He is the guardian and the disposer of all affairs.
Contradiction: 23:14, 37:125 say besides Allah, there are other creators. 

 

Sura 40: Al‑Mumin (The Believer) or Gafir (He who Forgives) 

40:25
Pharaoh ordered that all the newborn sons of the believers of Moses killed, but to spare their daughters.
Contradiction: 20:37‑39 says Pharaoh ordered the killing of infants when Moses was born, and not when Moses turned into an adult. 

40:62
He is Allah, the creator and the sustainer of everything, worship none but Allah.
Contradiction: 12:100 says Allah allowed Joseph’s brothers and his parents to worship Joseph by prostrating before him.
Contradiction: 23:14, 37:125 say there are other creators besides Allah, but Allah is the best creator. 

40:65
Allah is eternal; worship none except Him; all praise belongs to Allah.
Contradiction: 12:100 says Allah allowed Joseph’s brothers and his parents to worship Joseph by prostrating before him. 

 

Sura 41: Ha‑Mim or Ha‑Mim‑Sajda or Fussilat (Revelation well‑expounded) 

41:9
Allah created the earth (first) in two days (means Sunday and Monday—ibn Kathir) and He is the Lord of all worlds.

Contradiction: 79:27‑30 says Allah created the heavens first.
Contradiction: 7:54, 10:3, 11:7, 25:59 say six days of creation.
Contradiction: 41:12 says Allah created the seven heavens in two days. 

41:11
Allah designed the sky as a smoke; He rose towards the smoke, asked the smoke and the earth (i.e. earth was already created) whether they would come together willingly or unwillingly (the smoke is the steam of water—ibn Abbas).
Contradiction: 21:30 says heavens and the earth were joined together as one solid mass, then Allah separated them. 

41:12
Allah completed in two days (Thursday and Friday—ibn Kathir) the creation of heavens in seven firmaments (first) and (then) earth (that is; the total creation time for the earth and the seven heavens were two days); assigned duties and commands to each heaven, and adorned the lower heaven with lights.
Contradiction: 7:54, 10:3, 11:7, 25:59 say Allah created the heavens and earth in six days.
Contradiction: 2:117 says Allah creates instantly. 

41:16

Ad people were unappreciative of Allah’s revelations, so Allah destroyed them through a violent wind for several days and warned that penalty for them in the hereafter would be more humiliating.
Contradiction: 54:19 says Allah destroyed Ad people in one day.
Contradiction: 69:6‑7 says Allah destroyed Ad people in seven nights and eight days. 

41:31
The angels are our protectors in this life and in the life hereafter.
Contradiction: 2:107, 29:22, and 42:28 say Allah is our only protector.
Contradiction: 5:55 and 9:71 say messengers and the believers are our protectors and helpers. 

41:37
The sun and the moon are the signs of Allah, but do not worship them; prostrate only to Allah who has created them.
Contradiction: 12:100 says Allah allowed Joseph’s brethren and his parents to prostrate before Joseph. 

 

Sura 42: As‑Shura (Consultation, Counsel) 

42:51
Allah speaks from behind a veil, or through sending a messenger; Allah never speaks directly.
Contradiction: 53:11 says Muhammad saw Allah with his own eyes.
Contradiction: 2:259 says Allah spoke directly to an ordinary person.
Contradiction: 2:36 says Allah spoke directly to Adam.
Contradiction: 4:164 says Allah spoke directly to Moses.

 

Sura 43: Az‑Zukhruf (Gold Adornments) 

43:55
Pharaoh’s insolence greatly annoyed Allah, so He drowned Pharaoh.
Contradiction: 10:92 says Allah saved Pharaoh.

 

Sura 44: Ad‑Dukhan (Smoke or Mist) 

44:4
On this night (that is, on the night of Laylatul Qadr), Allah decides on all matters.
Contradiction: 20:52 and 57:22 says Allah has predetermined our fate even before He created us; everything is predetermined in the preserved tablet. 

 

Sura 45: Jathiya (Bowing the Knees, Kneeling) 

45:14
The believers are to forgive the unbelievers; Allah will decide on their punishment and/or reward.
Contradiction: 9:5, 9:29 say kill the unbelievers if they do not accept Islam or pay jizya tax.

 

Sura 47: Muhammad (Prophet Muhammad) 

47:15
Believers will be in gardens with rivers of incorruptible water, rivers of milk, rivers of wine, rivers of honey, all kinds of fruits, and grace from Allah. Unbelievers will dwell in fire; they will drink boiling water which will tear their intestines.
Contradiction: 5:90, 2:219 say wine is Satan’s handiwork. 

 

Sura 51: Az‑Zariyaat (Winds that Scatter) 

51:56
Allah created the Jinni and human only to worship Him.
Contradictions: 3:97, 35:15 say Allah does not need humans and jinns; He is free of all wants.
Contradiction: 7:179 says Allah created many men and jinns destined for hell. 

 

Sura 52: at‑Tur (The Mount, The Mountain) 

52:34
Allah challenged the unbelievers to compose a book similar to the entire Qur’an.
Contradiction: 2:23, 10:38 say Allah challenged the unbelievers to produce one Sura similar to the Qur’an.
Contradiction: 11:13 says Allah challenged the unbelievers to compose ten Suras similar to the Qur’an.
Contradiction: in 17:88 Allah challenged the entire mankind and the jinni to produce the entire Qur’an.
Contradiction: in 28:49 Allah challenged if the unbelievers could produce a book better than the two other books (Moses and Aaron as well as the Torah and the Qur’an—ibn Kathir) then Muhammad would have followed that book. 

52:35
Humans were not created out of nothing.
Contradiction: 19:9, 19:67 say Allah created a man out of nothing. 

 

Sura 53: An‑Najm (The Star) 

53:11
What Muhammad saw (Muhammad saw with his eyes his Lord—ibn Abbas) and felt at heart was true; he did not tell a lie (Muhammad saw Allah—Ash Shifa, p.104.)
Contradiction: 6:103, 42:51 say Allah is invisible. 

 

Sura 54: Al‑Qamar (The Moon) 

54:18‑21
Allah tells the story of the Ad people; how Allah destroyed them in a day.
Contradiction: 41:16 says Allah destroyed the Ad people in several days.
Contradiction: 69:6‑7 says Allah destroyed the Ad people in seven nights and eight days with a violent storm. 

54:23‑31
Allah narrates the history of the Thamud people. One (54:29) person killed the she camel of Salih. Three days after they killed the she‑camel, Allah destroyed them with a mighty blast.
Contradiction: 7:77, 26:157, 91:14 say several people killed the she‑camel. 

 

Sura 56: Al‑Waqia (The Inevitable Event) 

56:7
Allah will sort out people in three classes.
Contradiction: 90:17‑19 says Allah will sort out people in two distinct groups. 

 

Sura 57: Al‑Hadid (Iron) 

57:22
Even before Allah created the heavens and the earth, He had predetermined the fate of everything.
Contradiction: 44:3‑4 says every year, on the night of Laylatul Qadr, angels write down our fate, as decreed by Allah, for the coming year. 

 

Sura 58: Mujadila (The Woman who Pleads) 

58:22
If they resist Allah and Muhammad, then Muslims cannot take even their fathers, brothers, or sons as friends. These Muslims are the party of Allah; that is, Muslims cannot be friendly with the unbelievers even though they are their blood relations.
Contradiction: 17:23, 31:15 say respect parents even when they are unbelievers, and attempt to bring back the converts of Islam to idolatry. 

 

Sura 60: Al‑Mumtahan (The Woman to be Examined) 

60:10
Test the believing women refugees; believing women are not lawful wives of the unbelievers; believing men are not lawful husbands of unbelieving women (i.e., Muslim, male cannot marry non‑Muslim women.)
Contradiction: 5:5 says Muslim men can marry women of the people of the Book, i.e., Christian and Jewish women. 

60:13
Do not be friendly with the disbelievers; they are Allah’s enemies.
Contradiction: 5:82 says closest in friendship are Christians.

 

Sura 63: Al‑Munafiqun (Hypocrites) 

63:5
The hypocrites turn back even when Muhammad tells them he will seek Allah’s forgiveness for them.
Contradiction: 4:107 says Allah does not like disloyalty; He will not forgive the hypocrites. 

 

Sura 65: At‑Talaq (Divorce) 

65:4‑5
For menopause women, the waiting time for divorce is three months, same for women who are yet to menstruate. A child‑girl who is yet to menstruate, her waiting period is three months, same as for a menopause woman; for the pregnant women, the waiting time is until she delivers the child.
Contradiction: 4:5‑6 says orphan girls must reach marriageable age, which is taken as fifteen years, before they could be married. 

 

Sura 66: At‑Tahrim (Prohibition) 

66:8
If you repent then Allah will remove ills and will send you to Islamic Paradise under which rivers flow; the believers’ light will radiate in front of them and on to their right side.
Contradiction: 19:71 says every soul has to pass through Islamic Hell. 

 

Sura 69: Al‑Haqqa (The Sure Reality, Catastrophe) 

69:6‑7
Allah destroyed the Ad people with a furious wind, which lasted seven nights and eight days; they were left as headless bodies.
Contradiction: 41:16 says the furious wind lasted several days.
Contradiction: 54:19 says the furious wind lasted one day. 

69:25‑32
Those who receive the records on their left hands will regret their past actions; their wealth was of no use. They will be in hell; they will be seized, bound, and marched in a chain of seventy cubits (each cubit will be the forearm's length of an angel—ibn Kathir) long; then burnt in a blazing fire. (It will be entered into his buttocks and pulled out of his mouth. Then they will be arranged on this chain just like locusts are arranged on a stick that is being roasted—ibn Kathir. Insert the chain in his anus and extract it from his mouth—ibn Abbas.)
Contradiction: 84:10 says they will receive their records behind their backs.

69:35‑37
For the unbelievers their only food in hell will be bitter ones: filth and pus.
Contradiction: 37:62‑66 says unbelievers in Islamic hell will only eat fruits of Zaqqum trees.
Contradiction: 88:6 says they will eat only bitter Dari. 

 

Sura 70: Al‑Maarij (The Ways of Accent, the Ladders) 

70:4
The angels and the spirits ascend to Allah in a day; one day equals fifty thousand human years in Allah’s reckoning.
Contradiction: 22:47, 32:5 say one day of Allah equals 1,000 human years.
Contradiction: 50:16 says Allah is closer than the jugular vein. 

 

Sura 76: Ad‑Dahr (Time) or Insan (Man) 

76:21‑22
The serving boys (Ghilmans) will wear green garments of fine silk and heavy brocade, adorned with bracelets/ bangles of silver; Allah will give everyone to drink a pure holy wine (Sharaban Tahura); these will be the rewards for the dwellers of Islamic Paradise.
Contradiction: 5:90 says wine is the handiwork of Satan.

 

Sura 78: An‑Nabaa (The Great News, the Tidings) 

78:23
The unbelievers will remain in Islamic Hell for ages (Huqb is seventy or eighty years, and every day of it is like one thousand years according to your reckoning in this life—ibn Kathir.).
Contradiction: 2:167, 20:101, 32:14, 98:6 say the dwellers of Islamic Hell will stay there for eternity. 

 

Sura 83: Al‑Tatfif or Mutaffiffin (Dealing in Fraud, Unjust) 

83:25
In Islamic Paradise, Allah will quench the thirst of its dwellers with pure, sealed (expensive), exclusive wine.
Contradiction: 5:90 says wine is Satan’s handiwork. 

 

Sura 88: Al‑Gashiya (The Overwhelming Event) 

88:6
For the dwellers of Islamic Hell the only food will be a bitter, thorny, smelly plant, Dari.
Contradiction: 37:62‑66 says the inmates of Islamic Hell will eat only the fruits of Zaqqum tree.
Contradiction: 69:36 says they will eat only pus and filth. 

88:12
In Islamic Paradise, there is one bubbling spring.
Contradiction: 18:31 says multiple gardens with rivers flowing underneath. 

 

Sura 90: Al‑Balad (The City) 

90:17‑19
The believers are the companions of the right hand (paradise); the unbelievers are the companions of the left hand (hell), (two distinct groups of people).
Contradiction: 56:7 says three distinct groups. 

 

Sura 91: Al‑Shams (The Sun) 

91:14
Allah obliterated the Thamud people for rejecting their prophet, and for hamstringing Allah’s she‑camel.
Contradiction: 54:29 says one person killed the she‑camel.

 

Sura 99: Al‑Zilzal (The Convulsion, the Earthquake) 

99:6‑8

Allah will sort out people according to their deeds—good or evil deeds (two distinct groups of people—the people of paradise and the people of hell).
Contradiction: 56:7 says three distinct groups. 

 

Sura 109: Al‑Kafirun (those who disbelieve) 

109:6
To you be your way (means disbelief—ibn Kathir), to me is mine (means Islam—ibn Kathir).
Contradiction: In 3:85 Allah says He only accepts Islam.
Contradiction: 9:5 says kill the non‑Muslims wherever they are found. 

 

Conclusion

It appears that Allah is not sure and confident of Himself. He often hesitates, stumbles and errs of what He wants Muslims to emulate and follow. Just like a human being, Allah is prone to inconsistencies, mistakes and blunders. This demonstrates that the Qur’an cannot be the words of Allah, the all‑knowing, perfect, and precise creator of all things in the heavens and on earth. We might wonder how the creator and the sustainer of all things in the Heavens and on earth could construct such a platitude and slovenly written document. 

We cannot imagine what might happen to the universe if this demented, imbecile, imbroglio, hesitant, and imprudent Allah is to rule and run it according to His words and laws in the Qur’an. 

How could this unsure, uncertain, and self-doubting Allah send the Qur’an to guide the mankind? 

Interestingly, Many Islamists consider these contradictions as Allah’s miracles. 

 

PS: A few Muslim readers have sent this link to refute any contradictions in the Qur’an. I shall recommend the readers to visit these sites. According to the narrator of this document there is not a single contradictory verse in the Qur’an:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zsllge0QhQE&feature=channel
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LqU4suOQkQc&feature=channel

 

References:
 

  1. Ibn Musa al-Yahsubi, Qadi ‘Iyad. Ash-Shifa. Tr. Aisha Abdarrahman Bewley. Medina Press, P.O. Box 5531, Inverness IV5 7YA, Scotland, UK, fifth print 2004.
  2. Walker, Benjamin. 2004. Foundations of Islam. Rupa & Co. New Delhi. First published in Great Britain by Peter Owen Publishers, 1998.
  3. Tafsir ibn Abbas and Jalalyn: http://www.altafsir.com/
  4. The three translations of the Qur’an: http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/reference/reference.html
  5. www.qtafsir.com
  6. Maududi: http://www.tafheem.net/main.html
  7. Ibn Kathir’s Tafsir (exegesis) of the Qur’an: www.qtafsir.com

 


 
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