• Increase font size
  • Default font size
  • Decrease font size

Ottoman Genocide of Greek Christians: The First Academic Investigation on Turkish Genocide of the Greeks

E-mail Print PDF

ottoman geocide of greek christainsA Review of The Genocide of the Ottoman GreeksStudies on the State Sponsored Campaign of Extermination of the Christians of Asia Minor (1912-1922) and Its Aftermath: History, Law, Memory

Edited by Tessa Hofmann, Matthias Bjørnlund and Vasileios Meichanetsidis


The-Genocide-of-Ottoman-Greeks ottoman genocide

The Genocide of the Ottoman Greeks digs deep into the deplorable actions of the dying embers of the Ottoman Empire and the foundation of the Turkish Republic, which systematically annihilated various Christian communities. These various Christian communities were the indigenous people and suffered such brutality because of their ethnicity and religious affiliation. However, in the vast majority of schools throughout Europe and further abroad, this “hidden genocide” remains “in the dark” because of enormous pressure from modern Turkey and other factors.

Like the title of the book implies, the area covered is the genocide of the Greek community. Indeed, this is the first academic publication on the Greek genocide therefore it will serve to be a valuable source of information. The brutality that occurred during this period of history is unimaginable and clearly it is essential that a major academic publication deals with this very important subject. Therefore, The Genocide of the Ottoman Greeks fills this academic gap and sheds light on a genocide which needs more international attention.

On the Greek Genocide website it is stated that “During the years 1914-1923, whilst the attention of the international community focused on the turmoil and aftermath of the First World War, the indigenous Greek minority of the Ottoman Empire, the Republic of Turkey’s predecessor, was subjected to a centrally-organized, premeditated and systematic policy of annihilation. This genocide, orchestrated to ensure an irreversible end to the collective existence of Turkey’s Greek population, was perpetrated by two consecutive governments; the Committee for Union and Progress, better known as the Young Turks, and the nationalist Kemalists led by Mustafa Kemal “Atatürk”. A lethal combination of internal deportations involving death marches and massacres conducted throughout Ottoman Turkey resulted in the death of one million Ottoman Greeks.”

William Ramsay, a British ethnographer, visited the Ottoman Empire and clearly he understood what Turkish Muslim rule meant. He commented that the “Turkish rule… meant unutterable contempt… The Armenians (and Greeks) were dogs and pigs…to be spat upon, if their shadow darkened a Turk, to be outraged, to be the mats on which he wiped the mud from his feet. Conceive the inevitable result of centuries of slavery, of subjection to insult and scorn, centuries in which nothing belonged to the Armenian, neither his property, his house, his life, his person, nor his family, was sacred or safe from violence – capricious, unprovoked violence – to resist which by violence meant death.”

ottoman Genicide of christians
ottoman genocide of greek christians
ottoman genocide of greek christians

Henry Morgenthau, the ambassador of the United States (1913-1916) to the Ottoman Empire, stated that the policies of the Turkish government led to “outrageous terrorizing, cruel torturing, driving of women into harems, debauchery of innocent girls, the sale of many of them at 80 cents each, the murdering of hundreds of thousands and the deportation to and starvation in the desert of other hundreds of thousands, [and] the destruction of hundreds of villages and many cities”, all part of “the willful execution”

Comments and areas covered by The Genocide of the Ottoman Greeks

“The period of transition from the collapse of the Ottoman Empire to the foundation of the Turkish Republic was characterized by a number of processes largely guided by a narrow elite that aimed at constructing a modern, national state. One of these processes was the deliberate and planned elimination, indeed extermination, of the Christian (and certain other) minorities. According to demographic studies, the numbers are stark: In 1912 the areas of Asia Minor and Thrace were inhabited by about 4-5 million Christians and 7-8 million Muslims; by 1923 only 250-300,000 Christians remained.”

“Raphael Lemkin, the legal scholar who introduced the term genocide into international law, formulated his early ideas on the definition of this war crime by studying the destruction of the Christians of Asia Minor, while the distinguished Turcologist Neoklis Sarris has noted that the annihilation of the Christian minorities represented an integral element in the formation of the Turkish Republic. As the editors of this volume note the 2007 resolution by the International Association of Genocide Scholars, recognizing the Greek and Assyrian Genocides suggests a wider range of victim groups. This volume therefore represents an effort to provide an outline and a direction of a more extensive study of the deliberate destruction and elimination of a Greek presence that spanned over three millennia, in the space that became the Turkish Republic.” [http://www.greek-genocide.org/iags_resolution.html]

“The last two decades have seen a massive amount of research of the genocide of the Armenian population in the Ottoman/Turkish space. Much less scholarly work has been done on the genocide of the Greeks of Asia Minor and Thrace; there are many reasons for this, including the fact that Turkish governments have been successful in intimidating diplomats in the context of Turkish-Greek relations of the last generation, and of subverting academic integrity (inducing some scholars to make a career as denialists supported by international NGOs, all in the name of countering nationalism).”

“The volume includes article contributions on the areas subtitled: Historical Overview, Documentation, Interpretation; Representations and Law; Genocide Education; Memorialization; Conceptualization; and a very extensive Bibliography”


This book is essential reading for all people who are concerned about the genocide of Christians by Turkish rulers. The denial of the genocide encouraged Adolf Hitler because he stated “Who, after all, speaks today of the annihilation of the Armenians? Therefore, the book called The Genocide of the Ottoman Greeks is a must read in order to fully understand the brutal reality of what happened to the Ottoman Greeks and other minorities.


This review first appeared in the Modern Tokyo Times

Comments (29)Add Comment
written by Abc , May 20, 2012
revisionism anyone???
written by Barry , May 20, 2012
I wonder... is there is book out there that will educate us on the topic is Islamic genocide in India, where close to 100milion were slaughtered for partaking in the sin of Kufr.
Revisionism - Wikipedia
written by pipo , May 20, 2012

Historical revisionism;

-The critical re-examination of presumed historical facts and existing historiography-

or in the case of Genocide of the Ottoman Greeks; shedding light on an almost forgotten story.

Fictional revisionism;

-The retelling of a story with substantial alterations in character or environment to 'revise' the view shown in the original work-

or in case of the Quran; The rewritng of stories from existing scriptures so they can serve your interests and agenda
stoned-gawd allah
written by 1 , May 20, 2012
8:12 : I will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve. Therefore strike off their heads and strike off every fingertip of them

9:123 : O you who believe! Fight those of the unbelievers who are near to you and let them find in you hardness

9:29 : Fight those who do not believe in Allah, nor in the latter day, nor do they prohibit what Allah and His Messenger have prohibited, nor follow the religion of truth, out of those who have been given the Book, until they pay the tax in acknowledgment of superiority and they are in a state of subjection.

5:33 - The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His messenger and strive to make mischief in the land is only this, that they should be murdered or crucified or their hands and their feet should be cut off on opposite sides or they should be imprisoned; this shall be as a disgrace for them in this world, and in the hereafter they shall have a grievous chastisement....

The only way to avoid this fate is by converting to Islam.


Any enemy of allah can be killed it is clear that the Ottoman
Turks had the approval from their stoned-gawd allah to kill they deemed the "enemies of allah/Islam"
written by VRM , May 20, 2012
So many massacres by muslims, buried in graveyards of history are waiting to be excavated.
Good, it has started to come out.

But, don't they follow sunnah of fake pedophile prophet, who started it all with massacre of Jews??
To Barry
written by Archpagan , May 20, 2012
Google search 'The story of Islamic imperialism in India', and you will find a book authored by Sita Ram Goel.
The biggest prize for the Turks
written by dead or alive , May 20, 2012
Was the rape and fall of Smyrna,the last of the 7 churches in the book of Revelation.The date was 9/11/1922.U.S.,Brit.,and French warships watch it all happen and did nothing to stop it.
written by My mother is Greek, My father is Turk , May 21, 2012
There are many Greeks in Anatolia. Even nowadays.

And Believe me or not, Most of Anatolian Turks are nothing but converted Greeks and Armenians. Anatolian Turks do not look like asian Turks like Kazakhs, Turkmens, Uzbeks, Uyghurs...

Anatolian Turks are actually Armenian, Greek, Persian, Kurd, Albanian, Bosnian. Those who accepted Islam and Turkish nationality, saved his/her live. Those who did not killed without mercy.
Mohammad-The Evil One
written by Babu , May 21, 2012
Satan acquired the human form and came to this world as Mohammad.He only brought death and destruction into the world.He was foretold by Jesus to come as an ENEMY to sow tare instead of wheat.May his soul ROT in HELL till ETERNITY.
written by fineliving56 , May 21, 2012
There will not Hell … there be no heaven … there is No angels …. there is NO Satan … there no is Jinns … there is NO such things … if there was then we have to throw lagic right out of the window …and let us live in the Lala land .

When religion books says … Bad people going to burn for ever and ever with no end to burning … that is by it self, should proof it is nothing but a man made invention to terrify and put fear in the hearts of others to control and dominate.

Logic says … In our world ,punishment and torture of criminals has to have an end …even death penalty has an end … it is death …

Aso ...Sure it looks barbaric but when it is done ...it is done to inflect the minimum amount of torture … they even ask the criminals for their choice of best last meal …

so …. if we…. just lowly humans, can figure out that no crime deserves a '' a '' for ever ''torture punishment'', A God should do a lot better then a HUMEN …. especially if God brages endlessly about his enless MERSY

When a punishment goes on for ever and it does not equals the crime, that , chips a way, or erases the claim, religion books make '' for ever mercy ''.
@My mother is Greek, My father is Turk
written by pipo , May 21, 2012
Thanks, interesting to know.

But then my quess would be that most secular Turks are Anatolian Turks... Am I right?
@ fineliving 56
written by Babu , May 21, 2012
I would not compel you to believe what I believe.Did Jesus tell any lie in His life.If not,then you have to believe what Jesus told the man on the cross:You will be with me in Paradise today.Jesus died and rose from the dead and appeared to a lot of people before he was taken up in His resurrected body into heaven in front of the eyewitnesses.No Christian would ever try to force you to believe that.If you believe in Houries and Ghulman in Paradise,that is your choice as well.
Please explain
written by dead or alive , May 21, 2012
Did babies and little children understand about `converting`to Islam? @my mother&Turk father.
written by fineliving56 , May 21, 2012
Please do not take my post as an attack on Jesus or weather he was truthful or not … it has nothing to do with it .

I use logic as my flash light to take a look to known fact in religion books …which is '' to be tortured in hell for ever and ever for eternity '' … and as you know logic is somewhat universal and tend to be compass that lead all humen to same conclusion …unlike believe which is very personal.

A belief in a wonder like paradise is great and I like the idea .. but it is still built on another belief … and that in turn built on another … and so on …

In my life time I discovered to not to give abandonment to belief … but to give abandonment to logic and that led to know there is no way there is hell as described … at least in Quran …

it is absolutely does not make any sense .
written by Abc , May 22, 2012
Whatever the "now Turks" did or did not do, it was all done with the complicity of the UK and France and to a small degree the US .
So if turkey is guilty of anything then so must the uk and France be guilty if the same thing!!!
written by Truthseeker , May 22, 2012
Fineliving, logic doesnt have the answer to everything.

And those who are on the road to hell willingly put themselves there due to their rejection of the Lordship and Sonship of Jesus Christ. But God does not desire the death of the wicked but wants all to come to repentance and eternal life through His Son, the Lamb of God sent to take away the sins of the world.
written by fineliving56 , May 22, 2012

Yes I agree Logic does not have the answer for everything …. but it is closer to it, then anything out their … don't you agree ?

A non believer and a believer will agree on most things when logic is the compass but when belief is the compass … then there is endless variations because people are different, there for, they think differently …. it is so personal

In Islam the difference between Muslim believers and how they practice is so clear … [ I bring that example because I know it better ] … there is no two Muslim who think the same … there is 200 sexts of believes in Islam that interpret Quran on there own differently and the people of each sect have their own applications … and they all barge how they are the right Muslim who fallow Islam the right way.

I mean look at the three Muslims we had here … Reed did not think like Abs … Malam does think exactly like muslim and proud … and so on .. I could sit here and I will bring you endless example of how the belief of the believers differ .

written by abc , May 22, 2012
"I mean look at the three Muslims we had here … Reed did not think like Abs … Malam does think exactly like muslim and proud … and so on .. I could sit here and I will bring you endless example of how the belief of the believers differ"

EXACTLY. They are your words up there.
Islam is not a monolith.
So why do you and and other islamwatchers paint it as if it is???
Why do you then write articles proclaiming the absolute truth?
Hate and bigotry is an ugly thing.
Logic works only in a utopian world
written by Yibel , May 22, 2012
@ fineliving56

Logic is not a part of Islam, and that is the problem. It is not even possible to reason with an illogical person. Islam demands complete obedience to its mantra - blind obedience - without reason or logic. The individual person no longer exists, but must SUBMIT - fully! When to recite mantras. How to recite mantras. Where to recite mantras. How to groom. What to wear. What to eat. How to treat other members of the ummah; how to treat those who are unbelievers. And on and on.

A Muslim is a mindless zombie. Logic, reason, empathy, conscience - these are all gone. And what remains is a pschopath - dangerous, hostile, volatile!
written by fienliving56 , May 22, 2012
Are you kidding?

We are talking about The absolute truths as we read it in your Quran it self … all Artical are taking about things written in Quran .. as it is …

You are talking about a belief that A Muslim have in his head … how he interpret things in his Quran … as he sees it … which is very strong and it tend to sway peoples believes to suit their own wants and needs

they believe it this way and that way , because they wanted it this and that way .

there is a huge difference between a critic that used proofs from real sources ,in contrast of a wide eye believer who is up to his forehead with the grand Islam …

a critic of a film and the man who associated with the film for sure going to have different opinions ….

the second has benefit to be favorable to it so he going to be bias .

The critic does not have this issue … The Articles here are critiquing Islam and they use logic to do it …

other reasons for the genocide
written by dead or alive , May 22, 2012
Russia invades Turkey during early years of ww1.Turks say that Armenians,Greeks` went over the mountain`and join their christian brothers.And despite paying heavy taxes and treated badly by their Muslims masters.The Armenians,Greeks where much more prosperous in economy than their Muslim neigbors.What!A people who where smarter than their Muslim over lords!Allah can not look inferior to any other God!Time to kill those people who would have made Turkey a good partner today in world trade.A hugh step backwards for killing these people.A Russian said to a German prisoner of war,If the USSR would have sent the Germans to the Black Sea for R&R,The Russians would be on the Atlantic.
@ ABC and beliefs
written by Infidel and More Proud , May 22, 2012
"I mean look at the three Muslims we had here … Reed did not think like Abs … Malam does think exactly like muslim and proud … and so on .. I could sit here and I will bring you endless example of how the belief of the believers differ"

So Islam varies from person to person?
And I thought it was just one Islam from Quran and the associated baggage i.e. sunnah hadith et. al.
Infidel and more proud
written by fineliving56 , May 23, 2012
Yes … I find Islam is individualized in manners of all Muslim women I have got in contact with all my life …

Let's see …

there is the one who ...covers and preys, but do not fast, because as she says …she is sick and Allah, she is sure, do not want her to be hurt …

There is the one who ...prays five times a day and fast and make Zakat but dress in sleeveless tops and low cut dresses and have a dog inside her home and she love him as a you love a child …..
One time I asked her about the dog, she reminded me of Allah own love for the dogs of people of the cave and the fact that Allah mentioned them 4 times they were sleeping in the caves with them.

There is the one who ...covers and fast and make zakat, but never prays …she says, she is too busy working and have kids and home to take care off and says Allah will forgives her because she is doing more work then she asked by Allah .

There is the one who … covers in the winter and takes it off in the summer [ she is the funniest ] … she says … Allah cares about what in her heart … in the summer I suffocate and I absolutely cannot stand it on my head in 100 degrees .. so allah will forgive me for not veiling all seasons [ lol] .

Of course … there is the ones who ….do it all .. as Muhammad instructed … they are so terrified from Jahanim, they become like walking Quran reciting machines …that is spits accusations of being bad Muslimahs to all other muslimhs, to the point, no one wants to socialize with them .

Wander land … isn't ?

written by UK Front , May 24, 2012
What's the deal with all these Indians(?) on here? I didn't come here to read about low caste hindus or Indian politics. Maybe a separate site purley fot hem would be a good idea. It would be nice to ehar from people in my neck of the woods, i.e., the UK or Europe or even the US.
UK Front,
written by Dwito , May 25, 2012
An Englishman with this English? Now I can see why muzzies are taking over the kingdom so easily!!
written by Dwito , May 25, 2012
@Abc on May 22, 2012 above

Are you kidding?

Dear sister, what a kid could do else !!
written by abc , May 25, 2012
"written by UK Front , May 25, 2012
What's the deal with all these Indians(?) on here? I didn't come here to read about low caste hindus or Indian politics. Maybe a separate site purley fot hem would be a good idea. It would be nice to ehar from people in my neck of the woods, i.e., the UK or Europe or even the US"

There is an arab lady and a load of hindus with mental issues, who usually post here.
The dog and the sleepers in the cave
written by Yibel , May 25, 2012
This story is in Surit al Kahif, The Holy Cave, verses 18:18-22: "Did you think the Sleepers of the Cave and Al-Raqim a wonder among Our Signs?"

This story had been around for several hundred years before Muhammad's time, and was still being told in the 14th century in Christian countries and was included in the western Golden Legend, by far the most popular book of the later middle ages. The story is one of the many tales/fables that Muhammad plagarized for his Qur'an.

It's about some CHRISTIAN lads (not Muslims) who hid in a cave near Ephesus (in present day Turkey) during a time when Christianity was forbidden by the Romans. When they emerged after sleeping for several hundred years, Christianity had been declared okay.

But here's the funny part: Muhammad's stoned-gawd, or the go-between apparition, didn't tell Muhammad how many Christians hid in the cave, so Muhammad had to make a guess. He decided to cover all the bases - first he said 3, then 5, and then 7 - and he threw in a guard dog for good measure.

Muhammad said that Jibril, the apparition told him to Say: "My Lord (Al-Muqtadir, The Determiner, The Dominant or maybe it was Ar-Rahman) best knows their number. Few know them.'

As for Al-Raqim: Nobody knows! This might be the name of their dog, the mountain where the cave is located, or the tablet on which their names were inscribed.
Abc is funny again
written by 1proudkaffur4life , May 25, 2012
Here is a person who sees in Hindus people with "mental issues" while he promotes a "faith" which never could have survived if it was NOT spread by the sword. ah BTW have you seen the Devils being chased out of heaven, when they were pelted with STARS?

Write comment
This content has been locked. You can no longer post any comments.

Last Updated on Sunday, 20 May 2012 07:50  

About the book || Reviews by: Steven Simpson | Abul Kasem | Prof Sami Alrabaa | Ibn Kammuna


'Islamic Jihad' in Bangla
Aasma Riaz: "Thank you so much for your book "Islamic Jihad" and showing me the "Big Picture". For 7-8 days, I was glued to your book, absorbing so much information that I did not know existed. You have crisply covered so much in your book and quoted historical references extensively. I am just overwhelmed with different emotions after reading your book..., a priceless tome."

Editor: M A Khan | Site design: Dan Zaremba
Founded on 20 November 2005


Sign petition:  Grant Imran Firasat Asylum in the USA


Proxy Server: To view blocked websites, use this: iwebproxy