Waves of Islamic fundamentalism have engulfed Russia. And Kremlin continues to woo the Islamists with Hamas among them.
Following the prayer in the Moscow Cathedral Mosque, during his visit in February 2010, Hamas leader Khaled Mashaal has admitted that in the Council of Muftis of Russia it felt like home. While it probably pleased the Russian leaders, in reality these words should have alerted them. Whether it was Mashaal’s intention or not, this acknowledgment could be perceived as a prophecy: dawn of Islamic fundamentalism which illuminates the future of the northern superpower.
Islam is the second-largest religious denomination in Russia after the Orthodox Church. According to the official census, there are about 15 million Muslims (10%), while the Spiritual Board of Muslims mentions 20 millions. Most of the Muslims are concentrated in the North Caucasus (Chechens, Ingush people, etc.) and in the Volga region (Tatars, Bashkirs, Chuvash people, etc.). The natural growth of Muslims is traditionally higher than that of the rest of the population. Mass migration from Central Asia and Azerbaijan led to rapid growth of Muslim communities in large cities, especially in Moscow and St. Petersburg. The degree of religious self-consciousness of Muslims is much greater than of the Christian majority.
Unlike in European countries, Islam was a natural component in the religious and national mosaic of Russia, but the relationship between the government and the Muslims has always been controversial. On the one hand, Empress Catherine II patronized Islam by lifting restrictions on the construction of mosques, on the other, the ruthless conquest of the Caucasus by the Russian Empire in the mid XIX century led to virtual genocide of the natives. This ambivalence had remained under the Soviet regime as well.
Originally, communists considered the Muslims their natural ally against the Tsarist regime (the same way the multiculturalists see Islam as an ally in their fight against traditional and Christian values). Islamic places of worship were never subjected to mass destruction in such a scale as were churches and synagogues, and muftis were never repressed. The Muslim Autonomous Republics of Bashkiria, Tataria and Turkestan had been established under the Communist regime. In October 1926, the muftis of Russia were eager to unite Muslims around the world in the sake of Communist revolution against “imperialism”. However, the subsequent Stalinist repressions and especially the deportation of Chechens and Crimean Tatars have left a deep scar in the hearts of Muslims.
The Brezhnev regime in the 70s was more lenient toward Muslims than to Christians and Jews. They were allowed to publish the Quran, print lunar calendars and open mosques. A magazine – “Muslims of the Soviet East” – had emerged for sale for the general public.
The war in Afghanistan and the Islamic revolution in Iran were a turning point in the 80s. Wahhabism, sponsored by Saudi Arabia, began penetrating the Soviet Union. The Muslim youth was instigated by Islamic militancy, and the KGB repressions furthered fueled their rage against the atheist regime. Yeltsin and his entourage attempted to flirt with Islam, but without the desired effect. In August 1996, President of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev introduced Sharia law, which provisions cruel punishment for adultery and consumption of alcohol. Three years later, after the proclamation of “Islamic Emirate” in Dagestan, the second Chechen war has begun.
The North Caucasus was subdued, Kadyrov’s clan was brought to power by the Kremlin, and nonetheless, it was clear that the quiet period was only temporary. The problem wasn’t so much in terrorist attacks of separatists in Moscow and Dagestan, but in the popularity of Sharia state, “Jihad” and “Caucasian Imamate” among intellectuals and spiritual leaders in the North Caucasus. Bans and repressions only enhance the influence of Wahhabism; adherents of traditional Islam and Sufis daunt and bully.
Nowadays, waves of militant Islam have gushed far beyond the Caucasian Ridge, covering the entire European part of the country. Islamic extremism has taken deep root in the Muslim communities of two “capitals”: Moscow and St. Petersburg. In February, Russian security services arrested three hundred Islamic radicals from the “Petersburg Jamaat”. A cell of “Hizb ut-Tahrir” with immigrants from Central Asia and Azerbaijan is very active even in Siberia.
Militant Islam is rapidly infiltrating in the “soft underbelly” of Russia: Volga region – the solar plexus of the country with such ancient Russian cities as Izhevsk, Cheboksary, Ufa, Penza, Saransk, and, of course, Kazan – the capital of Tatarstan – a major scientific and industrial center of the country. Until recently Tatarstan (or Tataria) was an integral part of Russia. The separatist sentiments were historically weak in this region, where Islam had religious and cultural character. It was inherent. Islam has become the national religion of the Tatars in XIV century, but the Tatars, like other nomadic tribes, never showed excessive religious zeal. Conquered by Ivan the Terrible in the XVI century, the Khanate of Kazan remained loyal to Russia.
The situation began to change dramatically in recent years. The pressure of nationalism combined with militant Islam cause recession of the moderate Hanafi Islam. “Muslim Brotherhood” (“Ikhwan al-Muslimun”), which includes Hamas, is gaining power. Only after a blunt propaganda of this movement of Yusuf al-Qaradawi’s ideas to kill Russian soldiers in Chechnya in February 2003, Russia’s Supreme Court recognized the “Muslim Brotherhood” as illegitimate terrorist organization.
Nevertheless, it doesn’t prevent Russian foreign minister Sergei Lavrov to “cuddle” with Hamas leaders in Moscow.
In 2012, Wahhabi terrorists murdered a moderate and tolerant imam, well-known theologian Waliullah Yakupov, and tried to kill the Mufti of Tatarstan – Ildus Fayzov.
Recently, the Tatar Youth Union “Azatlyk” (Freedom) announced year 2013, in Tatarstan, as a “Year of Batu Khan” – grandson of Genghis Khan and ruler of Golden Horde – who collected toll from the Russian cities in XIII century. The “Azatlyk” promises to hold protest rallies “in honor of burning down of Russian cities: Moscow, Ryazan, Suzdal, Vladimir, Kozelsk” (!). Batu Khan was a pagan, who worshiped “the great blue sky”. His only “religion” was embezzlement and toll collection from the conquered population. Suddenly “Batu Khan” becomes a “protector of Islam”. “Azatlyk” intends to distribute calendars, postcards and icons with the image of the founder of the Golden Horde, in order, according to its leader Nail Nabiullin, to cause “Russia and Europe shiver from the sounds of horses’ hooves and whistling arrows of Tatar warriors.”
Protest rallies under the slogan “Tatarstan isn’t Russia” and “Suitcase, Railway Station, Russia” become ordinary in Kazan. Russian language is ousted by the Tatar one. Abdullah – the self-proclaimed “Emir of Tatarstan” – issued a statement, claiming the responsibility for killing two members of the FSB in Moscow and the detonation of the gas pipeline in a Moscow suburb. He threatens to eliminate Putin and carry out a series of terrorist attacks at strategic sites in Russia. The local Salafi leader Ramil Yunusov and activists of “Hizb ut-Tahrir” freely preach in Tatarstan.
Moreover, radical Islam is spreading in Krasnodar and Stavropol regions between the North Caucasus and the Volga region. Last year Russia was shaken by a scandal over the demand of Muslim leaders in the Stavropol region to force Muslim schoolgirls to wear “hijabs” – veils in schools.
Radical Islam penetrates into the heart of Russia, its ancient and primordial territories.
What Kremlin makes of it? Nothing… It rather, like Churchill was saying, “feeds a crocodile hoping it will eat him last”.