John J. O’Neill

One of the most potent myths of our age is that the Crusades were little more than an unprovoked attack by a barbarous Europe against a quiescent and cultured Islamic world.

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Islam had a "decisive" role in the expansion of slavery in Europe...

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By the late seventh century, and certainly by the eighth, Islamic ideas began to penetrate Europe, where they had a profound influence. European Christians, for example, began to think, for the first time, in terms of “Holy War,” an idea that would have been unthinkable in earlier centuries. There is strong circumstantial evidence that they began also to influence European thinking about the Jews.

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Islamic piracy, especially in the Mediterranean waters and European coastal areas and terrotories, had an impact that went far beyond the economic impoverishment of Europe...

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Islam had as debilitating an impact upon Byzantine Empire as it has on West Europe, the precipitation of the Dark Age, spanning 8th to 10th centuries...

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