Islam Under Scrutiny by Ex-Muslims

Allah’s Executive Office

<<<Chapter 3

Allah's Throne, Sun Rests on It, Shakes on Jihadi's Death, Angels Sit on Chairs. Allah Manages Affairs, Visits Sites, Conduct Yearly Tour, Has Assistant & Official Seal, Writes Laws with Own Hands,  Keep Records, Uses Balance to Judge People.


Does Allah have an executive office? Does Allah have a desk, a chair, and a diary – a super-duper one–to manage His affairs of heaven and the earth? Where is His Throne?  How does it look like? Does Allah have secretaries and personal assistants? We already saw Allah does have hands, feet, and eyes. Does Allah have telephones, fax machines, PCs, CDs, DVDs, PDAs, the Internet, and all other office equipment which are used by every executive in a modern office? Nay, Allah does not need them because there are no earthlings who know how to fix them because Murphy’s Law is supposed to work everywhere and yes, that includes Allah’s Executive Office too. 

All those questions are silly and blasphemous--no doubt, aren’t they? A good Muslim should never ask such preposterous questions. The Holy Qur’an clearly admonishes any Muslims asking such questions, because these are not permitted (5:101, 102), for the fear that if you ask such silly questions you may end up losing your faith. This is the worst crime a Muslim could commit. Therefore, you had better watch out. Let us hear from Allah Himself:

Allah has a Throne; sitting there, Allah watches and manages the affairs of the earth.

In many verses of the Qur’an Allah manifestly declares that He does indeed have a huge executive office. He admits that after the creation of the Heavens and the Earth He walked to sit on his executive chair—His Throne to be precise. Allah even discloses the location of his throne: it is above the seventh heaven. Sitting on this ponderous Throne He looks at the earth and the earthlings. Here are a few verses (summarised) which will leave no doubt that Allah manages His affairs from His Executive Office. 

Allah created the heavens (first) and (then) the earth in six days and then He ascended on His Throne; He regulates all His affairs from His firmly established Throne ...10:3 

Allah raised heavens without pillars (supports) (first), (then) established His Throne, (then) subjected the sun and (then) the moon to run their courses; He regulates all affairs...13:2

Allah is present over His Throne…20:5 

The unbelievers admit that Allah is the Lord of the seven Heavens and the supreme Throne...23:86 

Allah is most forgiving, kind, possessing the glorious Throne…85:14-15

Sunaan Abu Dawud provides a little more details of Allah’s executive Chair, the Throne. It is above the Heavens, like a dome over Him—just like the thrones of mighty emperors have a canopy over them. Just to make sure that Allah’s Throne is real, Sahih Bukhari even tells us that the throne makes some noise when Allah takes His seat there—just the way the saddle of a horse rider emits a mild raspy sound during riding. Let us read this hadith. This hadith is not available online, so I shall quote it from the print version. 

You cannot choose anyone as Allah’s intercessor; Allah’s Throne is above the heavens, like a dome over him; the Throne groans as a saddle does because of the rider; Allah is above the heavens… (Sunaan Abu Dawud 3.40.4708)

Sunaan Abu Dawud, Vol iii, Book 40, Hadith number 4708:

Muhammad b. Jubair b. Mut’im said from his father on the authority of his grandfather: An A’rabi (a nomadic Arab) came to the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) and said: People are suffering distress, the children are hungry, the crops are withered, and the animals are perishing, so ask Allah to grant us rain, for we seek you as our intercessor with Allah, and Allah as our intercessor with you. The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Woe to you: Do you know what you are saying? Then the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) declared Allah’s glory and he continued declaring His glory till the effect of that was apparent in the faces of his Companions. He then said: Woe to you: Allah is not to be sought as intercessor with anyone. Allah’s state is greater than that. Woe to you! Do you know how great Allah is? His throne is above the heavens thus (indicating with his fingers like a dome over him), and it groans on account of Him as a saddle does because of the rider.

Ibn Bashshr said in his version: Allah is above the throne, and the throne is above the heavens. He then mentioned the rest of the tradition. ‘Abd al‑A’la, Ibn al‑Muthanna and Ibn Bashshr transmitted it from Yaq’ub b. ‘Utbah and Jubair b. Muhammad b. Jubai from his father on the authority of his grandfather. 

A gigantic angel bears Allah. His size is so humongous that the distance between the widths of his shoulder is the distance of the journey of seven hundred years. In this sense the journey probably meant the distance a camel could cover in a day’s walk—possibly around thirty kilometers. Multiply this distance by seven hundred years (i.e. 255,500 days) and we end up with a figure of 7,665,000 kilometers. That’s correct, a distance of around 7.7 million kilometers. And remember this is the distance between the earlobe and the shoulder. So the total width of the angel’s shoulder, from ear lobe to ear lobe will be about 15.4 million kilometers. With this numerical figure in mind, now, imagine the width, depth and the height of Allah’s Throne. 

Let us peruse this incredible hadith: 

Sunaan Abu Dawud, Vol iii, Book 40, Hadith number 4709:

Jabir b. ‘Abd Allah reported the Prophet (may peace be upon him) as saying: I have been permitted to tell about one of Allah’s angels who bears the throne that the distance between the lobe of his ear and his shoulder is a journey of seven hundred years. 

Professor Ahmad Hasan, the translator of Sunaan Abu Dawud agrees with the above hadith. He writes: 

These traditions indicate that there is a throne on which Allah has taken His seat. The modality of these things is not intelligible to the people. As the Jahmiyyah denied the existence of the throne of Allah, their belief has been refuted by these traditions (Hasan, 2003, p. iii. 1324, foot note 4119). 

In Sunaan Ibn Majah we read that Allah, truly, is seated on His Throne. Let us read this hadith: 

Sunaan Ibn Majah, Vol. i, Hadith Number 193:

‘Abbas b. Abdul Muttalib (Allah be pleased with him) is reported to have said, “I was at Batha with a band of people and Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). He looked towards it and asked, “What do you call this (cloud)?”  They (the people) said, “(It is) sahib (cloud).” He (the Holy Prophet) said, “It is also called) al‑muzn i.e. rain‑cloud.” They (the companions) said, “Muzan”, upon which he remarked, “And ‘anan also.” Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him) said that they said, “And ‘anan?’ He (the Holy Prophet) said, “How much (distance) do you think is there between yourselves and the heaven?” They said, “We do not now.” Thereupon, he said, “(The distance) between you and it is equivalent to (the distance to be covered in) seventy‑one, or seventy‑two or seventy‑three years. The heaven above it has a similar distance”…till he counted seven heavens… “Then beyond the heavens is a river. Its upper and the lower bank has as much distance between them as a distance stretched from one heaven to the other one. Then beyond it, there are eight Angels in the shape of mountain goats. The distance between their hoofs is as much as the distance between the two heavens. Then, there lies on their back the Throne. The distance between its upper and lower side is as much as the distance between the two heavens. Then, Allah, the Blessed and Exalted is (seated) on this (Throne).” 

The above hadith will surely stretch beyond belief one’s imagination. 

Another hadith, almost similar to the above (ibn Majah), is found in Sunaan Abu Dawud.

Let us read (Sunaan Abu Dawud 3.40.4705

Not only that Allah has a mighty Throne, but His throne also has a footrest, on which Allah rests His feet. This footrest is known as Allah’s Kursi. Many Muslims wrongly believe that Kursi means Allah’s Throne. Imam ibn Taimiyah, one of the most formidable imams in the Islamic world corrects this wrong notion. According to Imam Taimiyah Allah’s throne is known as ‘Arsh. Commenting on verse 2:255 where this term (Kursi) is mentioned, the translator of the Noble Qur’an writes: 

(V.2.255). Kursi) Literally a footstool or chair, and sometimes wrongly translated as Throne. The Kursi mentioned in this Verse should be distinguished from the ‘Arsh (Throne) mentioned in V.7:54, 10:3, 85:15 and elsewhere. Prophet Muhammad said, “The Kursi compared to the ‘Arsh is nothing USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts but like a ring thrown out open upon a space of the desert.”

If the Kursi extends over the entire universe, then how much greater is the 'Arsh. Indeed, Allah, the Creator of both the Kursi  and the ‘Arsh, is the Most Great. Ibn Tayimiyah said in the chapters: a) To believe in the Kursi b) To believe in the ‘Arsh (Throne). It is narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah and from other religious scholars that the Kursi is in front of ‘Arsh (Throne and it is at the level of the feet [Fatwa Ibn Taimiyah, Vol. 5, pages 54, 55] (Hilali and Khan, 1996, p. 67, foot note 1) 

Just like any mighty emperors, Allah’s executive office – His official Throne-Room is surrounded by His attendees. Angels are there at Allah’s beck and call. These angels spend their time singing Allah’s praise and seeking Allah’s forgiveness. Then Allah will forgive whom Muhammad had forgiven. Allah will have a list of those creatures (human and jinni) forgiven by Muhammad. All the prophets and messengers (postmen) of Allah will be seated in Allah’s court. Here are a few more verses from the Qur’an on the enormous jurisdiction of Allah’s Executive office. 

The angels surround on all sides of the Throne of Allah …39:75

Those (angels) who bear Allah’s Throne and those around Allah's Throne ask for Allah's forgiveness; Muhammad is to forgive those who repent and obey him...40:7

All apostles (messengers) will be gathered together beside the Throne...77:11

To grasp the capaciousness of Allah’s Executive office, we must remember this statistics: Allah’s Throne has 8,000 pillars and the distance between each pillar is 3,000,000 (yes, three million) miles (Hughes, 1994, p. 28). Multiply these two numbers and try out. 

Muhammad will fall unconscious on the judgment day but will be the first to regain consciousness; he will see Moses holding the side of Allah’s Throne… (Sahih Bukhari, 3.41.594, 595)

Above Al-Firdaus is the Throne of Allah... (Sahih Bukhari, 4.52.48).

On the day of resurrection, Muhammad will be the first person to recover consciousness and Moses will be catching hold of Allah’s Throne … (Sahih Muslim, 30.5853, 5854).

Moses will be clinging to Allah’s throne (Sahih Bukhari, 6.60.337).

It is worth quoting here the last hadith:

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, Number 337: Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet said, "I will be the first to raise my head after the second blowing of the trumpet and will see Moses hanging the Throne, and I will not know whether he had been in that state all the time or after the blowing of the trumpet."

Allah’s Executive office (Throne) is over water and it has a title

Previously, we noted that Allah’s Throne is above al‑Firdous, the highest grade of paradise. In Islamic Paradise, a river flows with heavenly water which no one had ever tasted. This river emanates from the location of Allah’s Throne, possibly from beneath it. Naturally, we can safely assume then that Allah’s throne is floating on water—much like some Hindu deity that is shown seated on a Lotus throne which is afloat over water. Allah even keeps His diary and necessary Books just near His Throne, so that He could quickly and easily refer to them. The Tablet, Al-Lauhu-L-Mahfuz (the prescribed tablet; Hughes, 1994, p.285) on which the Qur’an is presumably written, rests on Allah’s huge executive Table. Just like any other deity’s sign over its seated throne, Allah also has His seal (or title) of His Throne. Here are a few ahadith to confirm those outstanding features of Allah’s Executive office. 

In the beginning there was nothing, then Allah created His Throne; Allah’s Throne is over the water, He then wrote everything in the Book… (Sahih Bukhari, 4.54.414)

Allah wrote, “My mercy overpowers my anger” and His creation in a Book and kept it in His Throne…4.54.416

After finishing creation, Allah wrote over his Throne: 'My mercy preceded my anger'... (Sahih Bukhari, 9.93.518)

While Allah sits on His Throne His angels sit on their chairs

Just like any authoritative ruler or a king Allah also has graded His employees and servants. While he seats on His titanic ‘Arsh (Throne), his untiring employees, the angels sit on modest chairs—clerical chairs, we might say. Even Muhammad himself had seen Allah’s angles seated on chairs. Let us read this hilarious hadith from Sahih Bukhari

Muhammad heard a voice from the sky and saw an angel in the sky sitting in a chair, he hurried home and Allah revealed 74:1-5 ... (Sahih Bukhari, 1.1.3).

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 1, Number 3: Narrated 'Aisha:

(The mother of the faithful believers) The commencement of the Divine Inspiration to Allah's Apostle was in the form of good dreams which came true like bright day light, and then the love of seclusion was bestowed upon him. He used to go in seclusion in the cave of Hira where he used to worship (Allah alone) continuously for many days before his desire to see his family. He used to take with him the journey food for the stay and then come back to (his wife) Khadija to take his food like-wise again till suddenly the Truth descended upon him while he was in the cave of Hira. The angel came to him and asked him to read. The Prophet replied, "I do not know how to read.

The Prophet added, "The angel caught me (forcefully) and pressed me so hard that I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read and I replied, 'I do not know how to read.' Thereupon he caught me again and pressed me a second time till I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read but again I replied, 'I do not know how to read (or what shall I read)?' Thereupon he caught me for the third time and pressed me, and then released me and said, 'Read in the name of your Lord, who has created (all that exists) has created man from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous." (96.1, 96.2, 96.3) Then Allah's Apostle returned with the Inspiration and with his heart beating severely. Then he went to Khadija bint Khuwailid and said, "Cover me! Cover me!" They covered him till his fear was over and after that he told her everything that had happened and said, "I fear that something may happen to me." Khadija replied, "Never! By Allah, Allah will never disgrace you. You keep good relations with your Kith and kin, help the poor and the destitute, serve your guests generously and assist the deserving calamity-afflicted ones."

Khadija then accompanied him to her cousin Waraqa bin Naufal bin Asad bin 'Abdul 'Uzza, who, during the Pre-Islamic Period became a Christian and used to write the writing with Hebrew letters. He would write from the Gospel in Hebrew as much as Allah wished him to write. He was an old man and had lost his eyesight. Khadija said to Waraqa, "Listen to the story of your nephew, O my cousin!" Waraqa asked, "O my nephew! What have you seen?" Allah's Apostle described whatever he had seen. Waraqa said, "This is the same one who keeps the secrets (angel Gabriel) whom Allah had sent to Moses. I wish I were young and could live up to the time when your people would turn you out." Allah's Apostle asked, "Will they drive me out?" Waraqa replied in the affirmative and said, "Anyone (man) who came with something similar to what you have brought was treated with hostility; and if I should remain alive till the day when you will be turned out then I would support you strongly." But after a few days Waraqa died and the Divine Inspiration was also paused for a while.

Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah Al-Ansari while talking about the period of pause in revelation reporting the speech of the Prophet "While I was walking, all of a sudden I heard a voice from the sky. I looked up and saw the same angel who had visited me at the cave of Hira' sitting on a chair between the sky and the earth. I got afraid of him and came back home and said, 'Wrap me (in blankets).' And then Allah revealed the following Holy Verses (of Quran):

'O you (i.e. Muhammad)! wrapped up in garments!' Arise and warn (the people against Allah's Punishment)…up to 'and desert the idols.' (74.1-5) After this the revelation started coming strongly, frequently and regularly."

Allah’s Throne shakes at the death of diehard jihadists

    That’s right. Allah is so much enamoured with His jihadist fighters that He mourns their death by allowing His Throne to convulse with the news of death of a diehard jihadist. This simply means that Allah is greatly unnerved and perturbed at the death of His soldiers, so much so, that He himself is shaken and this is what causes His Throne to shake.

      Here is a hadith:

The Throne of Allah shook at the death of Sa’d bin Muadh… (Sahih Muslim, 31.6033, 6034, 6035).

Sahih Muslim, Book 031, Number 6033:

Jabir b. 'Abdullah reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying while the bier of Sa'd b. Mu'adh was placed before them: The Throne of the most Gracious shook at the death of Sa'd b. Mu'adh.

The sun takes rest under Allah’s Throne

    We noted that beneath Allah’s throne is the scintillating flowing-river of Paradise. Allah also let the sun take rest there after its daily routine of shining over all subjects of Allah. In fact, the Islamic sun is a living creature: it actually prostrates under Allah’s Mighty Throne and effusively seeks His permission to be sent for its daily chore.

    Let us read the following ahadith and attempt to comprehend Allah’s limit of insanity.

The sun prostrates underneath Allah's Throne... (Sahih Bukhari, 6.60.326).

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, Number 326: Narrated Abu Dharr:

Once I was with the Prophet in the mosque at the time of sunset. The Prophet said, "O Abu Dharr! Do you know where the sun sets?" I replied, "Allah and His Apostle know best." He said, "It goes and prostrates underneath (Allah's) Throne; and that is Allah's Statement:--

'And the sun runs on its fixed course for a term (decreed). And that is the decree of All-Mighty, the All-Knowing....' (36.38)

The sun's fixed course is underneath Allah's Throne... (Sahih Bukhari, 9.93.528).

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 93, Number 528: Narrated Abu Dharr:

I asked the Prophet regarding the Verse:--‘And the sun runs on its fixed course for a term decreed for it.’ (36.28) He said, “Its fixed course is underneath Allah’s Throne.”

The sun goes to its resting place and then under Allah’s Throne then seeks Allah’s permission to rise again… (Sahih Muslim, 1.0297).

Sahih Muslim, Book 001, Number 0297:

It is narrated on the authority of Abu Dharr that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) one day said: Do you know where the sun goes? They replied: Allah and His Apostle know best. He (the Holy Prophet) observed: Verily it (the sun) glides till it reaches its resting place under the Throne. Then it falls prostrate and remains there until it is asked: Rise up and go to the place whence you came, and it goes back and continues emerging out from its rising place and then glides till it reaches its place of rest under the Throne and falls prostrate and remains in that state until it is asked: Rise up and return to the place whence you came, and it returns and emerges out from it rising place and then it glides (in such a normal way) that the people do not discern anything ( unusual in it) till it reaches its resting place under the Throne. Then it would be said to it: Rise up and emerge out from the place of your setting, and it will rise from the place of its setting. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said. Do you know when it would happen? It would happen at the time when faith will not benefit one who has not previously believed or has derived no good from the faith.

Allah conducts site visits; He performs His yearly site tour on earth

    Once Allah finishes His daytime tasks, He often leaves His Executive office and goes on a site tour. Every night, on the third part of it, (probably between 11:00 P.M and 2:00 A.M) Allah descends on the nearest heaven to earth and observe activities of His slaves. On special occasions, such as on the Day of ‘Arafat Allah changes His residence to Ka’ba (read part 2 of this series) to monitor the hajj pilgrims.

    Elaborating the concept of Islamic monotheism, Dr Muhammad Muhsin Khan writes:

(iii) we must confirm all of Allah’s Qualifications which Allah has stated in His Book (the Qur’an) or mentioned through His Messenger (Muhammad) without changing them or ignoring them completely or twisting the meanings or giving resemblance to any of the created things [e.g. Allah is present over His Throne as mentioned in the Qur’an (V.20.5)]. Allah said: “The most Beneficent (Allah) Istawa (rose over) the (Mighty) Throne,” over the seventh heaven, and He only comes down over the first (nearest) heaven to us on the day of ‘Arafat (Hajj, i.e. the 9th of Dhul Hijja), and also during the last third part of the night as mentioned by the prophet, but He is with us by His Knowledge only, not by His Personal-Self (Bi-Dhatihi)…

Allah’s official transport is a Buraq; He does not ride it, only Muhammad rode it

    Among all the incredible feats of Muhammad, the most perplexing is his night-journey, riding a strange transport, the Buraq to Jerusalem. The Qur’an does not describe in detail this amazing transport system of Allah. The shortest version of this story runs thus: After Muhammad had returned from his failed proselytizing mission to Taif, he slept in the house of Umm Hani, his cousin sister and his old love flame. He spent the night at her residence and in the morning he told her that, when all were asleep, he was awakened by a noise, found a strange animal, half-angel, half-horse, presumably sent by Allah as a transport for his sojourn to the farthest mosque (at Jerusalem). He gladly rode this creature (called Buraq) and in an instant safely arrived at Jerusalem. At Jerusalem Allah hanged down a rope (or a ladder in some version) which Muhammad, with the help of Gabriel climbed effortlessly to have a conducted tour of all the Heavens, met all the past Prophets and had a glimpse of Allah’s veil. Then he went down, boarded the Buraq, one more time, and returned to the residence of Umm Hani.

    To many readers this might sound to be a cock-and-bull story. But hang on, the most revered books of Islam, the ahadith provides vivid descriptions of this incredible voyage of Muhammad. From these ahadith we can draw one conclusion: Allah’s Executive Office does have a VIP transport facility (much like King’s and President’s limousine). This transport system uses a unique machine named Buraq which is half-human and half-animal in appearance. But the strange point is Allah Himself never rides this transport. There is no Qura’nic verse or any hadith where we find that Allah had ever ridden this transport of His.

    Let us read the a few ahadith on this incredible official transport system of Allah.

Gabriel opened the roof of Muhammad's house; opened his chest and washed it with Zam Zam water, then Gabriel took Muhammad for a ride to the heavens where Muhammad met all the previous prophets (stories of Isra and Miraj; long hadith read the link)...(Sahih Bukhari, 1.8.345)

An angel cut Muhammad’s body, washed Muhammad’s abdomen with Zam Zam water, then Gabriel and Muhammad set out on a Buraq (horse with wings and the face of a woman angle); description of Isra and Miraj travel…(Sahih Bukhari, 4.54.429)

Background to 32:23. On his Miraj Muhammad said that he met Moses and Jesus in heaven. Moses was a tall brown curly haired man; Jesus was of medium height and of Moderate complexion… (Sahih Bukhari, 4.54.462)

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 54, Number 462: Narrated Ibn Abbas:

The Prophet said, "On the night of my Ascent to the Heaven, I saw Moses who was a tall brown curly-haired man as if he was one of the men of Shan'awa tribe, and I saw Jesus, a man of medium height and moderate complexion inclined to the red and white colours and of lank hair. I also saw Malik, the gate-keeper of the (Hell) Fire and Ad-Dajjal amongst the signs which Allah showed me." (The Prophet then recited the Holy Verse): "So be not you in doubt of meeting him' when you met Moses during the night of Mi'raj over the heavens" (32.23)

Narrated Anas and Abu Bakra: "The Prophet said, "The angels will guard Medina from Ad-Dajjal (who will not be able to enter the city of Medina)."

Muhammad tells the details of his journey to meet Allah (Miraj)... (Sahih Bukhari, 5.58.227)

Muhammad’s journey to heaven was done by a Buraq (an animal white and long, larger than a donkey but smaller than a mule)… (Sahih Muslim, 1.0309)

The angels are Allah’s assistants; they surround Allah’s Throne, ready for service at His beck and call

    We had already learnt that the angels are Allah’s employed servants. Here are the confirmations.

      Let us read verse 82:10

YUSUFALI: But verily over you (are appointed angels) to protect you,- [Q 082.010 ]

    This verse tells us that the angels are appointed employees of Allah. They are entrusted with the daily chores of Allah’s activities. In fact, Dr Muhammad Muhsin Khan, the co-translator of the Noble Qur’an cites a hadith from Sahih Bukhari to further ascertain the roles and duties of Allah’s angels.

      Here is the hadith from Sahih Bukhari

All angels assemble at Fajr and at Asr prayer times…4.54.446

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 54, Number 446:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet said, "Angels keep on descending from and ascending to the Heaven in turn, some at night and some by daytime, and all of them assemble together at the time of the Fajr and 'Asr prayers. Then those who have stayed with you over-night, ascent unto Allah Who asks them, and He knows the answer better than they, "How have you left My slaves?" They reply, "We have left them praying as we found them praying." If anyone of you says "Amin" (during the Prayer at the end of the recitation of Surat-al-Faitiha), and the angels in Heaven say the same, and the two sayings coincide, all his past sins will be forgiven."

In Allah’s executive office Angels’ beat their wings in His obedience

    Declaring unquestioned allegiance to Allah is the central theme of all the core literatures of Islam. To his impressionable listeners Muhammad always planted the seed of excruciating fear of Allah. He demanded unquestionable, unflinching obedience from his followers. He used to cite the examples Allah’s angels, who, according to Muhammad, show their obedience to Allah by beating their wings. He even claimed that some angels have 600 wings (300 pairs?). Muhammad also described the sound of beating of angels’ wings: it was the sound of chains being dragged on a floor.

    We will now read a few ahadith on this incredible claim of Muhammad.

Angels beat their wings in obedience to Allah (34:23)... (Sahih Bukhari, 6.60.223).

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, Number 223:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet said, "When Allah has ordained some affair in the Heaven, the angels beat with their wings in obedience to His statement, which sounds like a chain dragged over a rock." ('Ali and other sub-narrators said, "The sound reaches them.") "Until when fear is banished from their (angels) hearts, they (angels) say, 'What was it that your Lord said? They say, 'The truth; And He is the Most High, the Most Great.' (34.23) Then those who gain a hearing by stealing (i.e. devils) will hear Allah's Statement:-- 'Those who gain a hearing by stealing, (stand one over the other like this).

(Sufyan, to illustrate this, spread the fingers of his right hand and placed them one over the other horizontally.) A flame may overtake and burn the eavesdropper before conveying the news to the one below him; or it may not overtake him till he has conveyed it to the one below him, who in his turn, conveys it to the one below him, and so on till they convey the news to the earth. (Or probably Sufyan said, "Till the news reaches the earth.") Then the news is inspired to a sorcerer who would add a hundred lies to it. His prophecy will prove true (as far as the heavenly news is concerned). The people will say. 'Didn't he tell us that on such-and-such a day, such-and-such a thing will happen? We have found that is true because of the true news heard from heaven."

    The Qur’an (35:1) says Allah had created angels with wings of two, three or four pairs.

YUSUFALI: Praise be to Allah, Who created (out of nothing) the heavens and the earth, Who made the angels, messengers with wings,- two, or three, or four (pairs): He adds to Creation as He pleases: for Allah has power over all things.

Allah’s angel, Gabriel has 600 wings… (Sahih Bukhari, 4.54.455)

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 54, Number 455:

Narrated Abu Ishaq-Ash-Shaibani:

I asked Zir bin Hubaish regarding the Statement of Allah: "And was at a distance of but two bow-lengths or (even) nearer; so did (Allah) convey The Inspiration to His slave (Gabriel) and then he (Gabriel) Conveyed (that to Muhammad). (53.9-10) On that, Zir said, "Ibn Mas'ud informed us that the Prophet had seen Gabriel having 600 wings."

Allah keeps records in a book of all events, even the records of all Islamic divorces

    Allah is a meticulous record-keeper, make no mistake on this. This means Allah has a huge database from which He easily digs up the records of every person on earth including those who had died and those who are yet to be born. In reality, Allah is so obsessed with the book-keeping of his slaves (I mean, humans), that He particularly records all Islamic divorces. Presumably, records of all legal and illegal sexual activities (such as boy-friend, girl-friend, fornication and adultery) must also be there, for, Allah is very particular about sex matters. Why should Allah be so concerned about His data collection when He could easily do just like that—in a jiffy, whatever He wished? The answer is: Allah is actually a cunning, conniving and unscrupulous swift plotter. He actually plots to foil the conspiracy of those who plan to topple Him or His ardent friend Muhammad. This means, Allah’s claim that He is almighty, most powerful; all knower is actually quite hollow–just fib. This should not surprise us at all. We had learnt previously that Allah allows Muslims to tell lies. So, why should not Allah, Himself tell lies? This is very much logical: if the father teaches his son to be a liar then him (the father) must be a liar too.

    Let us read the following verses from the Qur’an to understand the peculiar mind of Allah—a mind obsessed with data-recording.

If the man proceeds with the divorce then Allah records it…2:226-227

Allah is a swift plotter because the messengers (angels) record all the sinister plots of the unbelievers…10:21

Muslims must keep in the straight path (Islam); Allah surely keeps all their records…11:112

Everyone will read his records in a scroll...17:14

People with records on their right hand will read them with pleasure...17:71

The book of records will be opened and the guilty will be frightened at the meticulous records of their misdeeds…18:49

Allah has an accurate count (records) of all people on earth…19:94

Allah records all the works of His faithful...21:94

Allah records at ease everything in a book …22:70

Allah has preserved all records...78:29

When their records are presented each person will know his position…81:14

The records of the wicked people are kept in an inscribed register called Sijjin...83:7–9

The records of the righteous are kept in a high place with an inscribed register called Illiyin; it is viewed only by those close to Allah...83:18–21

Those who receive their records in the right hand will rejoice (paradise); those who are given the records behind their backs will cry and will enter a blazing fire (hell, gehenna)...84:7–12

    In the following verses Allah provides some clue as to why He is so thorough with His database. He has graded the Paradise into three classes. The highest grade is reserved for the jihadists (suicide bombers, kaffir killers, Murtad hunters, cyber jihadists, Islamic writers, imams, muezzins …and so on). Next will be Muslims from the first generation of Muslims (i.e. Muhammad’s time). The third group will the Muslims from other generation. In the same manner, Allah also has divided the denizens of Hell into two classes.

    Here are the Qur’anic verses which grades paradise.

Class 3(the highest grade): Elite of the elite (the best of the best in believers)…56:10

Class3 Those nearest to God in the garden of bliss...56:11-12

Very few Muslims in class 3 will be from the later period of Islam…56:14

The people on the right hand will be of two classes: group (a) will be from the first generation of Islam and (b) the multitude of them will be from the later generation…56:38-40

Those whose records are given on their right hands will be in a life of bliss (paradise)...69:19–21

Class 2 (upper paradise, reserved for Muhammad’s generation) will be on thrones encrusted with gold and precious stones...56:15

Class 2: Reclining on thrones facing each other, served by immortal youth (boys) of perpetual freshness, shining goblets, cups filled out of clear-flowing fountains, no-after-ache, no intoxication, fruits, flesh of fowls, concubines with lustrous eyes like pearls (houris)...56:16-26

Class 1(lower paradise, Muslims of later generation) They will be among Lote trees without thorns, among Talh (banana) trees with fruits, shades long extended, water flowing constantly, fruits in abundance, no prohibition, special virgin sex–companions (houris) equal in age...56:27-37

      And here is how Allah will use His database to sort out the denizens of hell:

The residents of hell will be in the midst of fierce blast of fire, in boiling water, under black smoke...56:41-45

They were constantly immersed in sins…56:46

They refused to believe that they and their ancestors would be raised again after their body has become dust…56:47-48

Those whose records are given on their right hands will be in a life of bliss (paradise)...69:19–21

Those who are given the records on their left hands will regret their past actions; their wealth was of no use. They will be in hell; they will be seized, bound and marched in a chain of seventy cubits long then burnt in a blazing fire...69:25-32

The Illiyin is also an inscribed register where records of the righteous are kept and are to be viewed only by those close to God…83:19-21

    Abdullah Yusuf Ali, the eminent translator of the Holy Qur’an writes that Allah has a register called illiyyin where records of righteous deeds are kept.

      Let us read his comment:

    ‘Illiyin: the oblique form of the nominative ‘Illiyun, which occurs in the next verse. It is in contrast to the Sijjin which occurs in verse 7 above, where see .6013. Literally it means the ‘High Placs’, but it is probably not the same as the ‘heights’ (A’raf) mentioned in vii.46. Nor need we necessarily identify it with the “dwelling on high”(gurufat) mentioned in xxxiv.37. Applying the reasoning parallel to that which we applied to Sijjin, we may interpret as the Place where is kept the Register of the Righteous (Ali, 1983, p.1705, foot note 6019).

Since Allah is so famished for the attention, love and affection from humans, He has vouchsafed that despite all his record keeping, He will admit all those who embrace Islam, even though they might be thieves or sex-offenders. Sahih Bukhari confirms this crazy temperament of Allah

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 76, Number 498: Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:

The Prophet narrating about his Lord I'm and said, "Allah ordered (the appointed angels over you) that the good and the bad deeds be written, and He then showed (the way) how (to write). If somebody intends to do a good deed and he does not do it, then Allah will write for him a full good deed (in his account with Him); and if he intends to do a good deed and actually did it, then Allah will write for him (in his account) with Him (its reward equal) from ten to seven hundred times to many more times: and if somebody intended to do a bad deed and he does not do it, then Allah will write a full good deed (in his account) with Him, and if he intended to do it (a bad deed) and actually did it, then Allah will write one bad deed (in his account) ."

Allah has His own official seal

Just like any rulers, Allah has His own royal seal or stamp or official insignia. His seal is etched on baked clay. In fact, to confirm this, Allah inflicted with might a severe punishment to the citizens of Sodom and Gomorrah.  He incessantly bombarded them with fiery baked-clay lumps bearing the official seal of Allah.  

Let us read this verse from the Qur’an 

The city of Lot (Sodom) was destroyed with brimstones of baked clay which was marked by Allah (i.e. Allah destroyed Sodom with stoning) in layers...11:82-83

YUSUFALI: When Our Decree issued, We turned (the cities) upside down, and rained down on them brimstones hard as baked clay, spread, layer on layer,- [011.082]

YUSUFALI: Marked as from thy Lord: Nor are they ever far from those who do wrong! [011.083]

Ibn Kathir, the most eminent Tafsir writer confirms that Allah destroyed Sodom with stoning; each stone had the name of its victim inscribed in it. This means that each clay stone of Allah had His royal emblem attesting the official approval of the total annihilation of the disbelievers of Sodom. 

[Please note: I tried to provide hyperlink ( to ibn Kathir’s site, but it was unsuccessful. For a number of years, this site had been active, promoting ibn Kathir’s tafsir of the Qur’an. All on a sudden, this site is now extinct or at least has become notoriously unreliable. However, interested readers can download an online version of ibn Kathir’s tafsir from Please note that I cannot guarantee a successful download. Further, note that this version of ibn Kathir’s tafsir has discarded plenty of absolutely unpalatable passages.]

Allah writes His Laws with His own Hands

Those experts of Islam who claim that Allah’s hands, nose, ears, eyes…and so on are just symbolic, figurative and should not be taken as physical, must be telling flat lies. In the following verse, Allah unabashedly admits that He uses His own hands to write His Books, especially the Books on Law. He tells us that He personally wrote, with His own hands, the tablet on which He wrote the Mosaic laws.  

Let us read the following verse. 

Allah wrote in a tablet His laws and gave that to Moses to be followed by his people…7:145

PICKTHAL: And We wrote for him, upon the tablets, the lesson to be drawn from all things and the explanation of all things, then (bade him): Hold it fast; and command thy people (saying): Take the better (course made clear) therein. I shall show thee the abode of evil-livers.

Sahih Bukhari tells us that Allah wrote the Book (Qur’an) with His own hands and kept that beside Him (Sahih Bukhari, 9.93.501)

Sahih Bukhari Volume 9, Book 93, Number 501: Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet said, "When Allah created the Creation, He wrote in His Book--and He wrote (that) about Himself, and it is placed with Him on the Throne--'Verily My Mercy overcomes My Anger.'"  

Sahih Muslim records that Allah wrote the Torah with His own hand. Let us read this hadith as narrated by Abu Huraira, one of the most prolific hadith narrators: 

Sahih Muslim, Book 033, Number 6409:

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: There was argument between Adam and Moses. Moses said to Adam: You are our father. You did us harm and caused us to get out of Paradise. Adam said to him: You are Moses. Allah selected you (for direct conversation with you) and wrote with His own Hand the Book (Torah) for you. Despite this you blame me for an act which Allah had ordained for me forty years before He created me. Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: This is how Adam came (sic) the better of Moses and Adam came the better of Moses (sic).

Angels write with pens Allah’s instructions

Not only that Allah, with His hand, writes His Laws, even the angles use pen and their own hands to write down Allah’s instructions.  

Let us read the following hadith from Sahih Muslim 

                        Book 001, Number 0313:

Anas b. Malik reported: Abu Dharr used to relate that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: The roof of my house was cleft when I was in Mecca and Gabriel descended and opened my heart and then washed it with the water of Zamzam. He then brought a gold basin full of wisdom and faith and after emptying it into my breast, he closed it up. Then taking me by the hand, he ascended with me to the heaven, and when we came to the lowest heaven, Gabriel said to the guardian of the lowest heaven: Open. He asked who was there? He replied. It is Gabriel. He again asked whether there was someone with him. He replied: Yes, it is Muhammad with me. He was asked if he had been sent for, He (Gabriel) said: Yes. Then he opened (the gate). When we ascended the lowest heaven (I saw) a man seated with parties on his right side and parties on his left side. When he looked up to his right, he laughed and when he looked to his left, he wept. He said: Welcome to the righteous apostle and the righteous son. I asked Gabriel who he was and he replied: He is Adam (peace be upon him) and these parties on his right and on his left are the souls of his descendants. Those of them on his right are the inmates of Paradise and the parties which are on his left side are the inmates of Hell; so when he looked towards his right side, he laughed, and when he looked towards his left side, he wept. Then Gabriel ascended with me to the second heaven. He asked its guardian to open (its gate), and its guardian replied in the same way as the guardian of the lowest heaven had said. He (opened it). Anas b. Malik said: He (the Holy Prophet) mentioned that he found in the heavens Adam, Idris, Jesus, Moses and Abraham (may peace be on all of them), but he did not ascertain as to the nature of their abodes except that he had found Adam in the lowest heaven and Abraham in the sixth heaven. When Gabriel and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) passed by Idris (peace be upon him) he said: Welcome to the righteous apostle and righteous brother. He (the narrator) said: He then proceeded and said: Who is he? Gabriel replied: It is Idris. Then I passed by Moses (peace be upon him) and he said: Welcome to the righteous apostle and righteous brother. I said to (Gabriel): Who is he? He replied: It is Moses. Then I passed by Jesus and he said: Welcome to the righteous apostle and righteous brother. I said (to Gabriel): Who is he? He replied: Jesus, son of Mary. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Then I went to Ibrahim (peace be upon him). He said: Welcome to the righteous apostle and righteous son. I asked: Who is he? He (Gabriel) replied: It is Abraham. Ibn Shihab said: Ibn Hazm told me that Ibn 'Abbas and Abd Habba al-Ansari used to say that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Thereafter he ascended with me till I was taken to such a height where I heard the scraping of the pens. Ibn Hazm and Anas told that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Allah then made fifty prayers obligatory for my Ummah and I returned with that and passed by Moses. Moses, (peace be upon him) said: What has thy Lord enjoined on thy people? I said: Fifty prayers have been made obligatory on them. Moses (peace be upon him) said: Return to thy Lord, for thy Ummah would not be able to bear this burden. Then I came back to my Lord and He remitted a portion out of that. I then again went to Moses (peace be upon him) and informed him about it He said: Return to thy Lord, for thy Ummah shall not be able to bear this burden. I then went back to my Lord and He said: They are five and at the same time fifty, and what has been said will not be changed. I then returned to Moses and he said: Go back to thy Lord. Whereupon I said: I feel ashamed of my Lord. Gabriel then travelled with me till we came to the farthest lote-tree Many a colour had covered it which I do not know. Then I was admitted to Paradise and saw in it domes of pearls, and its soil of musk. 

Commenting on the above hadith, ‘Abdul Hamid Siddiqi, the translator of Sahih Muslim writes that Allah’s angels do indeed write with pens, Muhammad heard the sound of those pens. Let us read his comment: 

The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) came so near to Allah that he could hear the scrapping of the pens of angels as they were writing the decrees of their Lord. It is a symbolic way of saying that the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) was lifted to such heights of spiritual experience where he could distinctly perceive the destiny of human race being decreed (Siddiqi, 2004, p.1.125, footnote 337).

In His Executive Office, Allah uses a balance to judge people

Muhammad must have seen the Roman goddess of justice, who holds a sword in one hand and a balance on another hand. This picture of god(ess) gave him a good idea of how Allah will mete out His strict justice. When the indigent, illiterate and ignorant followers of him could not understand a clear concept of Allah’s justice system, Muhammad provided them a vivid description of Allah’s method of justice—the mimicry of the Roman goddess. Muhammad was certain that Allah will use a physical balance to weigh people’s measure of piety and wickedness. Whichever side is the heavier; Allah will send him accordingly, i.e. either to Paradise or to Hell. 

Here is a verse from the Qur’an on Allah’s balance of justice. 

Allah will use a balance to judge; those with heavy balance will be successful (i.e. they will be in Paradise)…23:101-102

YUSUFALI: Then when the Trumpet is blown, there will be no more relationships between them that Day, nor will one ask after another [023.101]

YUSUFALI: Then those whose balance (of good deeds) is heavy, - they will attain salvation: [023.102]

Previously, we also noted a hadith from Sahih Bukhari which tells us that Allah's Throne is over water and in His hand there is the balance of justice... (Sahih Bukhari, 6.60.206).

Read the following ahadith to confirm that Allah does indeed use a physical balance to mete out justice.

Allah's right hand is full, on the other hand He holds the balance of justice and His Throne is over the water... (Sahih Bukhari, 9.93.508, 515).

After finishing creation, Allah wrote over his Throne, ‘My mercy preceded my anger'...(Sahih Bukhari, 9.93.518). 

Allah has assistant (Muhammad) who mete out Allah’s justice.

Is Allah’s justice meted out by someone else? We often hear that only Allah will judge and mete out punishment or reward. No human has the authority to mete out Allah’s justice. But hang on; Allah has no shortage of assistants to help Him out for this purpose.  

Let us read the following hadith from Sahih Muslim.  

The dispenser of justice will be seated on the pulpit of right or left side of Allah… (Sahih Muslim, 20.4493)

Sahih Muslim, Book 020, Number 4493:

It has been narrated on the authority of 'Abdullah b. 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Behold! The Dispensers of justice will be seated on the pulpits of light beside God, on the right side of the Merciful, Exalted and Glorious. Either side of the Being is the right side both being equally meritorious. (The Dispensers of justice are) those who do justice in their rules, in matters relating to their families and in all that they undertake to do. 

The natural question is: who is the dispenser of justice seated next to Allah? Is it the archangel, Gabriel, Michael, Azrail, Harut, Marut…or who? Or could this be the first human Adam or another prophet before Muhammad— such as Abraham, Moses, Jesus…and so on. But search no more. The answer is Muhammad. He will be seated next to Allah and will be meting out punishment or reward according to his wish; of course, subject to full approval by Allah. In reality, Allah will never object to the decision of Muhammad. 

We might find this simply impossible to believe—Muhammad seated next to Allah and awarding justice. But hold on. This is exactly what the founder of the Hanbali sect of Islam, the formidable Imam Hanbali says. Hanbali asserts that Allah actually set Muhammad upon His Throne and constituted him as His substitute in the governance of the universe (Hughes, 1994, p.188).  Please note that the laws of Hanbal are the laws Saudi Arabia, the cradle of Islam.  

Sahih Muslim also describes how Allah’s court procedure will follow. A hadith says that as witnesses Allah will give tongues and ears to human limbs. These limbs will testify against the wrong doers (read non-Muslims). Let us read this hadith from Sahih Muslim.

You will have no difficulty in seeing Allah on the judgment day; Allah will be as clear as the moon in a clear sky; Allah will sit on judgment and the parts of our body would testify as to whether we tell the truth or not…(Sahih Muslim, 42.7078).

Sahih Muslim, Book 042, Number 7078:

Abu Huraira reported that they (the Companions of the Holy Prophet) said: Allah's Messenger, will we be able to see our Lord on the Day of Judgment? He said: Do you feel any difficulty in seeing the sun in the noon when there is no cloud over it? They said: No. He again said: Do you feel any difficulty in seeing the moon on the fourteenth night when there is no cloud over it? They said: No. Thereupon he said: By Allah Who is One in Whose Hand is my life. you will not face any difficulty in seeing your Lord but only so much as you feel in seeing one of them. Then Allah would sit in judgment upon the servant and would say: O, so and so, did I not honour you and make you the chief and provide you the spouse and subdue for you horses, camels, and afforded you an opportunity to rule over your subjects? He would say: Yes. And then it would be said: Did you not think that you would meet Us? And he would say: No. Thereupon He (Allah) would say: Well, We forget you as you forgot Us. Then the second person would be brought for judgment. (And Allah would) say: O, so and so, did We not honour you and make you the chief and make you pair and subdue for you horses and camels and afford you an opportunity to rule over your subjects? He would say: Yes, my Lord. And He (the Lord) would say: Did you not think that you would be meeting Us? And he would say: No. And then He (Allah) would say: Well, I forget you today as you forgot Us. Then the third one would be brought and He (Allah) would say to him as He said before. And he (the third person) would say: O, my Lord, I affirmed my faith in Thee and in Thy Book and in Thy Messenger and I observed prayer and fasts and gave charity, and he would speak in good terms like this as he would be able to do. And He (Allah) would say: Well, We will bring our witnesses to you. And the man would think in his mind who would bear witness upon him and then his mouth would be sealed and it would be said to his thighs, to his flesh and to his bones to speak and his thighs. flesh and bones would bear witness to his deeds and it would be done so that he should not be able to make any excuse for himself and he would be a hypocrite and Allah would be annoyed with him. 

A Tirmidhi hadith indeed confirms that Muhammad will be seated on the right side of Allah’s Throne and will mete out judgment. 

Here is the hadith: 

Muhammad will stand on the right side of Allah's Throne, where no other creature other than him will stand…(Tirmidhi hadith number 1520)

Narrated AbuHurayrah

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "I shall be clothed with one of the robes of Paradise and shall then stand at the right of the Throne, a place where no other creature than I shall stand."

Tirmidhi transmitted it. The version on his authority in Jami' al-Usul has "I shall be the first from whom the earth will be cleft open and I shall be clothed....." (Hadith quoted from ALIM CD ROM) 

Another Tirmidhi hadith says that Muhammad will carry two books with him which will contain the list of inmates of paradise and the denizens of hell. Let us read this hadith: 

Muhammad carried two books; the book on his right hand had all the names of inmates of paradise and the book on his left hand had all the names of denizens of hell…(Tirmidhi hadith number 24)

Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr

Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) went out and he had in his hand two books. He said: Do you know what these two books are? We said: Allah's Messenger, we do not know but only that you inform us. Thereupon he said: This one which my right hand possesses is a Book from the Lord of the worlds. It contains the names of the inmates of Paradise and the name of their forefathers and those of their tribes. It is most exhaustive and nothing will be added to it nor anything eliminated from it up to eternity. He then said: This one in my left hand is a Book from the Lord of the worlds. It contains the names of the denizens of Hell and the names of their forefathers and their tribes. It is also exhaustive to the end and nothing will be added to it nor anything will be eliminated from it. The Companions said: Allah's Messenger, (if this is the case) then where lies the use of doing a deed if the affair is already decided. Thereupon he said: Stick to the right course and remain as close to it as possible for one who is to be inmate of Paradise would end his life by an act befitting the inmates of Paradise, no matter what he may have done and for one who is the denizen of Hell, his deed would end on that which is a deed of the denizens of Hell, no matter what he may have done (before). Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) then threw the books and making a gesture with his hand said: Allah has made a decision about His servants (a section will be in Paradise and a section in the blaze).

Transmitted by Tirmidhi. (Hadith quoted from ALIM CD ROM) 

Allah has a gigantic floodlight to light the entire earth

Just like a royal court, Allah’s court also is decorated with crystal chandelier or lights with intense effulgence. It is not clear why Allah would need such intense brilliance when the sun will be just a few cubits above the earth. Here is a verse from the Qur’an which tells about Allah’s crazy mind. 

On the resurrection day the entire earth will be lit with the light of Allah, records will be studied, the prophets and the witnesses will be brought forward then the just decision will be pronounced…39:69

YUSUFALI: And the Earth will shine with the Glory of its Lord: the Record (of Deeds) will be placed (open); the prophets and the witnesses will be brought forward and a just decision pronounced between them; and they will not be wronged (in the least). [Q 39.69]




>>>Chapter 5 : Allah’s Temperament

Abul Kasem is an Bengali ex-Muslim and academic. He has contributed in Leaving Islam - Apostates Speak Out and Beyond Jihad Critical Voices from Inside. He has also written extensively on Islam in various websites and is the author of four e-Books: In the Name of Allah, Root of Terrorism ala Islamic Style, Sex and Sexuality in Islam, Who Authored the Quran? and Women in Islam. Mr. Kasem leaves in Sydney, Australia. He can be contacted at [email protected].

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