The Root of Terrorism a la
20 Nov, 2005
- 'Violence is the repartee of the illiterate'---Alan Brien (1925-)
The Raid on Khaybar and Fadak by Muhammad - May, 628CE
In the spring (around March) of 628 Muhammad, along with one thousand and five hundred (1,500) of his devout supporters, went on a mission to perform Umra (minor Hajj) at Mecca. However, fearing mischief, the Meccans did not allow Muhammad to enter the city, forcing him to encamp at a place called Hudaibiya in the outskirts of Mecca. While there, he negotiated a ten year peace treaty with the Quraysh that permitted him to enter Mecca beginning from the following year and perform Hajj with his followers. This is the famous Hudaibiya pact. After signing this treaty, and while returning to Mecca, he heard the murmur of discontent from his followers for entering into a treaty that was heavily in favor of the Quraysh. Besides, the nascent Jihadists also missed an opportunity to plunder further the Meccans. Muhammad was clever enough to realize that he must continue rewarding his Jihadists through ill-gotten wealth otherwise, his Jihadists would waver in their faith in him. This was also a time of severe drought at Medina. So, while he was on his way back (to Medina), he already made up his mind to conduct a fresh raid on the Jews. Since all other Jews around Medina had either been expelled or liquidated through pogrom, Muhammad decided to plunder and loot the remaining Jews at Khaybar. Haykal writes that the the Jews living at Khaybar were the strongest, the richest and the best equipped for war of all the peoples of Arabia (Hykal, Ch. Khaybar expedition).To assure and to please Muhammad in this plunder, Allah revealed Sura al-Fath (Victory, Sura 48) forgiving his past and future sins (48:2) and guaranteeing him triumph (48:21) through His (Allah's) help. In verses 48:16, 20 Allah promised further booty for joining in Jihad; this was to improve the material life of the Jihadists. Mubarakpuri insists that this promise of booty meant the loot of Khaybar. Emboldened by such divine promise of succor, Muhammad's followers were now ready for a new pillage, and within a few weeks after their return from Hudaibiya they headed for Khaybar to loot it. We can confirm the truth of this outright, unprovoked plundering operation from the history of al-Tabari:
During the prevailing draught at Medina at that time, a group of B. Aslam who had embraced Islam came to Muhammad for assistance. But Muhammad had nothing to assist them. So he prayed to Allah so that they could plunder the richly laden fortresses of the Khyabar Jews including their luscious green agricultural lands. He said, "O God, Thou knowest their condition-that they have no strength and that I have nothing to give them. Open to them [for conquest] the greatest of the fortresses of Khaybar, the one most abounding in food and fat meat."
The next morning, Muhammad plundered the fortress of al-Sa'b b. Muadh (a Jewish chief) that had the most abundance in food.
Even Sahih Bukhari writes that the major purpose for raiding Khaybar was food:
Volume 5, Book 59, Number 547:
When Khaibar was conquered, we said, "Now we will eat our fill of dates!"
Volume 5, Book 59, Number 548:
Narrated Ibn Umar:
We did not eat our fill except after we had conquered Khaibar.
It is important to review this embezzling operation in detail, as the actions of the Jihadists in this terror operation portray accurately the true mindset of the messenger of Allah.
As stated earlier, after his return from Hudaibiya, Muhammad had promised his followers a great spoil of plunder. About six weeks passed without much happening. His followers became impatient. He was now looking for an excuse to perpetrate such an act of plundering the Jews. But no such opportunity came readily. So, in May, 628 he preemptively made a sudden and unprovoked assault on the Jews of Khaybar.
Muhammad's army started marching against the Khaybar Jews with a force of around one thousand and four hundred (1,400) strong men. He took a big cavalry of between one and two hundred. Many Bedouins and other tribes of Medina, who, hitherto neglected Muhammad also wanted to join in this swag. But Muhammad refused to take them in for their refusal to join in Hudaibiya in the first place. Kahybar booty was meant only for those terrorists who were willing to accompany the messenger of Allah through thick and thin. In verse 48:15 Allah also instructed him not to entrust these hypocrite Arabs. Umm Salama, one of Muhammad's seven wives accompanied the Prophet of mercy. Using lottery (his usual practice)Muhammad chose her amongst his many wives. The Muslim army covered the distance of about one hundred miles from Medina in about four or five days. Ibn Sa'd writes that it was a fasting month; some Muslims fasted, some did not. Before making this wanton attack on the Khaybar Jews, Muhammad stopped at a valley named al-Rajii; not the al-Rajii near Taif where Muhammad's companions were killed (see Terror 25, CH. 7). He encamped there between the people of Ghatafan and the people of Khaybar. This was a ruse to prevent the people of Ghatafan to come to the aid of the Khaybar Jews when he attacked them.
Nonetheless, when the Ghatafan heard of Muhammad's advance they assembled their men and marched forward to help the Khaybar people. After marching for a day they heard from sources that Muhammad had attacked their (i.e., Ghatafan's) families that they had left behind. So they hastened back to protect their families. This was a clever ploy by the Muslims, because now the way to Khaybar was completely open unhindered to Muhammad. Then Muhammad offered his morning prayer and made an early morning attack on the inhabitants of Khaybar claiming that early morning times were miserable times for the infidels (see Sahih Bukhari, vol. 4, book 52, number 195).
The attack was so sudden that the farmers of Khaybar were completely stunned, when early in the morning, when they were about to go to work in their plantations, they found that the Muslim soldiers had surrounded them. This sudden invasion by the Muslim army cut off all the hopes of the Jews to get aid from B. Ghatafan.
Ibn Ishak writes that the war cry of the Muslims at Khaybar was, 'O victorious one slay, slay!'
It is the Islamic custom to raid a place early in the morning invoking the name of Allah (note the timing of 9/11). Here is a Hadith from Sahih Bukhari to confirm the sudden and unprovoked attack on the Khaybar Jews: (You will find quite a few similar Ahadith in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim)
Volume 1, Book 11, Number 584:
Anas bin Malik said, "Whenever the Prophet went out with us to fight (in Allah's cause) against any nation, he never allowed us to attack till morning and he would wait and see: if he heard Adhan he would postpone the attack and if he did not hear Adhan he would attack them." Anas added, "We reached Khaibar at night and in the morning when he did not hear the Adhan for the prayer, he (the Prophet ) rode and I rode behind Abi Talha and my foot was touching that of the Prophet.
The inhabitants of Khaibar came out with their baskets and spades and when they saw the Prophet they shouted 'Muhammad! By Allah, Muhammad and his army.' When Allah's Apostle saw them, he said, "Allahu-Akbar! Allahu-Akbar! Khaibar is ruined. Whenever we approach a (hostile) nation (to fight), then evil will be the morning of those who have been warned."
Initially shocked, the Khaybar Jews immediately returned to their fortresses and prepared to fight Muhammad's invading army. They had some time to rally around their new leader, Abul Huqayq and posted themselves in front of their citadel, Qamus and resolved to fight a desperate battle. Previously, Muhammad had assassinated Sallam ibn Abul-Huqayq (Abu Rafi) and another Jewish leader, Al-Yusayr b. Rizam just a few months before (see Terror 51, CH. 12). In the beginning, Muhammad made a few unsuccessful attempts to dislodge them from their formidable fortress.
Then one of the Jews, Marhab challenged the Muslims in a single combat. So, a Jihadist, Amir, confronted Marhab. Unfortunately, while attacking Marhab, Amir accidentally cut his median vein by himself that cost him his life. Many Muslims thought that Amir had committed suicide and sought Muhammad's clarification about those who commit suicide while fighting the infidels. Muhammad assured them that Amir will receive double reward for his (suicidal) action. Sourcing authentic chain of narrators, Ibn Sa'd writes: ' Salamah ibn Akwa said: " I came across the Companions of the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, who declared: All the good deeds of 'Amir were lost, as he had committed suicide. Salamah said: Then I approached the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him weeping and asked : 'Were the deeds of 'Amir vain? He said: And who said this? I said some of your Companions (said this). The Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him said: He who said this uttered a lie. His reward has been doubled."'
This very first act of Islamic suicide 'attack' is recorded in Sahih Bukhari in this way:
Volume 5, Book 59, Number 515:
Narrated Abu Huraira:
We witnessed (the battle of) Khaibar. Allah's Apostle said about one of those who were with him and who claimed to be a Muslim. "This (man) is from the dwellers of the Hell-Fire." When the battle started, that fellow fought so violently and bravely that he received plenty of wounds. Some of the people were about to doubt (the Prophet's statement), but the man, feeling the pain of his wounds, put his hand into his quiver and took out of it, some arrows with which he slaughtered himself (i.e. committed suicide). Then some men amongst the Muslims came hurriedly and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Allah has made your statement true so-and-so has committed suicide. "The Prophet said, "O so-and-so! Get up and make an announcement that none but a believer will enter Paradise and that Allah may support the religion with an unchaste (evil) wicked man.
After the death (suicide) of Amir, Muhammad b. Maslamah (the professional killer) went to fight with Marhab and in a grueling duel he killed Marhab. Then Marhab's brother, Yasir rushed forward to avenge his brother's death.
The Jihadist al-Zubayr went forward to meet him in a single combat. After a short fighting, al-Zubayr killed Yasir.
In this terror operation we also note the cowardice by Umar b. Khattab, whom the Islamists portray as an incredibly intrepid Jihadist.
When Muhammad encamped at the Khaybar, he gave the banner to Umar b. al-Khattab. Umar went to fight with the Jews but was chased out by them. After returning to Muhammad, his companions complained of Umar's cowardice. So next day, Muhammad gave the banner to Ali who, at that time had an inflamed eye. Muhammad spat on his eyes and Ali's eyes were healed!
Another version of killing of Marhab runs like this:
Muhammad often had migraine headache and would not come out from his hideout for a few days. When he attacked Khaybar, he was suffering from such a migraine headache, and so he did not venture out of his lair. At first, Abu Bakr went out and fought vigorously. When he returned, Umar went out and fought with more vigor and then came back to Muhammad.
After learning about the not so successful outcomes from those two lieutenants of him, on the next day, Muhammad sent Ali who arrived in the morning with inflamed eyes. Muhammad spat in his eyes and the pain departed immediately. Then Ali went out to fight. Approaching the fortress of Khyabar, he met Marhab, the commander of the fortress enticing the Jews to fight the invaders. They met in a single combat in which Ali killed Marhab by a heavy blow of sword that split Marhab's head.
A general battle now ensued and the Muslims were able to make a good advance. The situation of the Jews became desperate. Muhammad started appropriating Khaybar property piece by piece, fortress by fortress. He captured the first fortress that belonged to Na'im. Muhammad's comrade Mahmud b Maslama (Muhammad b. Maslama's brother) was killed here when a millstone was hurled at him. The next fortress to fall was Qamus, which belonged to Abul Huqayq. Then Muhammad besieged the last two of the fortresses, the fortress of al-Watih and al-Sulalim for thirteen and nineteen days respectively. The Jewish leader, Sallam ibn Mishkam was killed and al Harith ibn Abu Zaynab took over the leadership of the Jewish forces. Many Jews, after being defeated at other locations had taken sanctuary at these two fortresses that Muhammad found difficult to penetrate. So he, as per Islamic rule, cut off their water supply. The hapless Jews then had no choice but to submit to the invading Muslim army. Muhammad continued with his plunder until he finished capturing all the property that he could lay his hands on. He agreed to spare the lives of the surrendered Jews by expelling them from their ancestral homes on condition that they must hand over all their yellow and white metals (i.e. gold and silver). The Jews were permitted to take with them all their belongings that they could load on their beasts (camels and donkeys) except for gold and silver. Failure to comply with this stipulation meant a certain death-Muhammad warned. There was a severe shortage of provision for the Muslim soldiers and many of them became very hungry. Unable to find provision easily, Muhammad asked them to eat horse meat but forbade them to eat donkey meat. Other prohibitions imposed were: the eating of garlic (raw) and the 'muta' (contract) marriage. However, the Shia sect of Islam claims that no such ban on 'muta' marriage was imposed.
Thus, the Muslims had a decisive victory. The Jews lost ninety-three (93) men while the loss on the Muslim side was only nineteen (19) men. Muhammad took some Khaybar Jews as captives, including Safiyyah bt. Huyayy b. Akhtab, an exquisitely pretty young newly married bride of Kinanah b. al-Rabi b. al-Huqayq. She was the daughter of B. Nadir chief, Huayy b. Akhtab who was beheaded by Muhammad in the slaughtering of B. Qurayzah (Muhammad had already expelled B. Nadir Jews from Medina (see Terror 28, CH. 8). Kinanah had recently married Safiyyah, the young, vivacious and pouted daughter of Huyayy and had received a good treasure trove as gift. Muhammad also took two daughters of Safiyaah's paternal uncle. At first Dihyah al-Kalbi, a Muslim Jihadists asked for Safiyyah. But when Muhammad saw the unparallel beauty of her, he chose her for himself and gave her two cousin sisters to Dihyah.
"After the Messenger of God conquered al-Qamus, the fortress of Ibn Abi al-Huqyaq, Safiyyah bt. Huyayy b. Akhtab was brought to him, and another woman with her. Bilal, who was the one who brought them, led them pat some of the slain Jews. When the woman who was with Safiyyah saw them, she cried out, struck her face, and poured dust on her head. When the Messenger of God saw her, he said, "Take this she-devil away from me!" she commanded that Safiyyah should be kept behind him and that the Messenger of God had chosen her for himself."
- Anyway, Muhammad accused Safiyyah's husband, Kinanah and his cousin of hiding some of their properties in contravention of the terms of surrender. He was especially angered that Kinanah had hidden the wealth (worth about ten thousad Dinars; i.e, US$ 500,000, approximately) that he received from his marriage to a B. Nadir girl (i.e. Safiyyah). A renegade Jew divulged the secret of Kinanah's hidden gold treasures. That Jew went and fetched the hidden treasures. Kinanah and his cousin were promptly arrested by the Muslims.
Then Kinanah b. al-Rabi, Safiyyah's husband was brought to Muhammad. Muhammad charged him of hiding his wealth in some underground storage. When Kinanah denied this allegation, Muhammad ordered to inflict torture on him. He was tormented by branding his chest with a heated stake and then he was beheaded (recall the recent Islamic style torturing and beheading of Nick Berg).
Sourcing Ibn Ishak, Tabari writes:
'Kinanah b. al-Rabi b. al-Huqyaq who had the treasure of B. Nadir was brought to the Messenger of God, who questioned him; but he denied knowing where it was. Then the messenger of God was brought a Jew who said to him, "I have seen Kinanah walk around this ruin every morning." The Messenger of God said to Kinanah: "What do you say? If we find it in your possession, I will kill you." "All right," he answered. The Messenger of God commanded that the ruin should be dug up, and some of the treasure was extracted from it. Then he asked him for the rest of it. Kinanah refused to surrender it; so the Messenger of God gave orders concerning him to al-Zubayr b. al-'Awwam, saying, "torture him until you root out what he has." Al-Zubayr kept twirling his firestick in his breast until Kinanah almost expired; then the Messenger of God gave him to Muhammad b. Maslamah, who beheaded him to avenge his brother Mahmud b. Maslamah."'
- Because of the so-called treachery by the Jews for allegedly hiding their treasures, Muhammad now allowed the Muslim Jihadists to take possession of the women and children of the Jews of Khaybar
The beheading done, Muhammad sent Bilal to fetch Safiyyah, Kinana's wife. Her beauty was well known in Medina. Her real name was Zaynab and, as told before she initially fell in the hands of a Jihadist, Dhiya al-Kalbi. However, when Muhammad heard about her extreme beauty he chose her as his Safi (i.e, special selection by Muhammad before the khums and distribution of booty to the Muslims). So when Zaynab became Muhammad's Safi she became to be known as Safiyyah (Muhammad's special selection).
Here is a Hadith from Sunan Abu Dawud narrated by none other than A'isha, Muhammad's favourite wife, also a teenager at that time:
Sunan Abu Dawud: Kitab al-Kharaj
Book 19; number 2988
'A'isha said: Safiyyah was called after the word safi (a special portion of the Prophet).
- Sunan Abu Dawud: Kitab al-Kharaj
Book 19; number 2992
Anas said: Captives were gathered at Khaibar. Dihyah came and said: Apostle of Allah, give me a slave-girl from the captives. He said : Go and take a slave-girl. He took Safiyaah daughter of Huyayy. A man then came to the Prophet (may peace be upon him) and said: You gave Safiyaah daughter of Huyayy, chief lady of Quraizah and al-Nadir to Dihyah? This is according to the version of Ya'qub. Then the version goes: She is worthy of you. He said: Call him along with her. When the Prophet (may peace be upon him) looked at her, he said to him: Take another slave-girl from the captives. The Prophet (may peace be upon him) then set her free and married her.
- To enjoy this special booty, Muhammad asked Bilal, the Negro crier of prayer to fetch Safiyyah to his (Muhammad's) camp. Bilal brought Safiyyah and her cousin straight across the battlefield strewn with dead and close by the corpses of Kinana and his cousin. The two cousin sisters of Safiyyah shrieked in terror when they witnessed the grotesque scene of the slain dead bodies of their dearest relatives that they had to cross over. They tremulously begged a stone-hearted Bilal for mercy but to no avail. When they were brought to Muhammad, he cursed the panic-stricken cousins as devilish and cast his mantle around Safiyyah indicating that she was to be his own. Muhammad consoled a frustrated Dhiya by giving him Safiyyah's cousin sisters.
We learn from Ibn Sa'd that Muhammad purchased Safiyyah from Dhiyah for seven camels (around US$ 2,450). On the same night that Muhammad took possession of Safiyyah, he hastened to his tent to sleep with her. Here is what Ibn Sa'd writes:
: "-.when it was night, he entered a tent and she entered with him. Abu Ayyub came there and passed the nigh by the tent by the tent with a sword keeping his head at the tent. When it was morning and the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, perceived (some body) moving, he asked: Who is there? He replied: I am Abu Ayub. He asked: Why are you here? He replied: O Apostle of Allah! There is a young lass newly wedded (to you) with whose late husband you have done what you have done. I was not sure of safety, so I wanted to be close to you. Thereupon the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, said twice: O Abu Ayyub! May Allah show you mercy."
- To hide the lascivious character of Muhammad, Muslim biographers often mention that he married Safiyyahh before he slept with her. But they forget to mention that Muhammad did not follow the rule of waiting period (three monthly periods) to sleep with Safiyyahh.
The Islamic version of Muhammad's possession of Safiyyahh runs something like this: Muhammad quickly married Safiyyahh with a great wedding feast. After the feast was ended, Muhammad called for a screen to hide Safiyyahh from public gaze. This was a clear sign that Muhammad had married Safiyyahh and did not take her as a slave girl.
Sahih Bukhari writes:
Volume 5, Book 59, Number 512:
The Prophet offered the Fajr Prayer near Khaibar when it was still dark and then said, "Allahu-Akbar! Khaibar is destroyed, for whenever we approach a (hostile) nation (to fight), then evil will be the morning for those who have been warned." Then the inhabitants of Khaibar came out running on the roads. The Prophet had their warriors killed, their offspring and woman taken as captives. Safiya was amongst the captives, She first came in the share of Dahya Alkali but later on she belonged to the Prophet . The Prophet made her manumission as her 'Mahr'.
Muhammad was sixty (60) when he married Safiyyahh, a young girl of seventeen. She became his eighth wife.
During the time of negotiation with the Khaybar Jews, Muhammad sent a message to the Jews of Fadak asking them to surrender their properties and wealth or be attacked.
When the people of Fadak had heard of what tragedy had befallen the Khaybar Jews, to spare their lives, they requested Muhammad to take over their property and banish them. Muhammad did exactly that. After the Khaybar Jews surrendered to Muhammad and having lost their only source of livelihood, they requested him to employ them back on their properties for half the share of the crop. Muhammad found it much more convenient to re-employ them, as the Jews were already very experienced with their land, whereas the Muslims (the new occupiers of their land) had no experience with agriculture and cultivation. So Muhammad made some conciliation to the Khaybar Jews by re-engaging them in their lost land, but on condition that he reserved the right to banish them at anytime he wished. The Jews had very little choice but to agree with that. Same terms were applied to the Fadak Jews. Later, when Umar became the Caliph of Islam, he expelled all the Jews from Kahybar and Fadak
Khaybar became the booty of the Muslims, but Fadak became Muhammad's private property (a Fai, to use the Islamic parlance), as there was no fighting involved in Fadak. This provision was sanctioned by Allah in verse 17:64, 59:6-7
After Muhammad had settled the affair of Khaybar, he took a rest. While he was resting, Zaynab bt.al-Harith, a Jewess and the wife of Sallam b. Mishkan (Muhammad had already killed him on charges of hiding the wealth) served him a roast sheep. It is alleged that she poisoned it to kill Muhammad. When she brought the meat to Muhammad and his companions, Muhammad took a bite of the foreleg and chewed it but suspected some foul play and did not swallow it. Two of his companions chewed the meat and then swallowed it and one of them died on the spot. Muhammad suffered from excruciating pain. Zaynab was then summoned and interrogated as to the motive of her offence. She boldly condemned the cold-blooded murder, by Muhammad, of her father, her husband and her uncle. She said, "How you have afflicted my people is not hidden from you. So I said, 'If he is a prophet, he will be informed, but if he is king, I shall be rid of him.'" She was then put to death. Some say that she was set free. It is claimed that the effect of the poison lasted until the dying time of Muhammad.
The plunder from the Khaybar raid was enormous. As usual, a fifth of the booty was set apart for Muhammad. The remaining four-fifths were then divided into one thousand and eight hundred (1,800) shares. One share went for a foot soldier and three for a horseman. Different Islamic rule was applied for land grab. One half of Khaybar land was reserved for Muhammad and his family (i.e. a sort of crown property). The remaining land was divided using the same rule as for the personal booty. Only those Jihadists who had previously participated in the Hudaibiya expedition were rewarded, irrespective of whether they joined in the Khaybar plunder or not.
We read in Sahih Bukhari:
Volume 3, Book 39, Number 531:
Narrated Ibn 'Umar:
Umar expelled the Jews and the Christians from Hijaz. When Allah's Apostle had conquered Khaibar, he wanted to expel the Jews from it as its land became the property of Allah, His Apostle, and the Muslims. Allah's Apostle intended to expel the Jews but they requested him to let them stay there on the condition that they would do the labor and get half of the fruits. Allah's Apostle told them, "We will let you stay on thus condition, as long as we wish." So, they (i.e. Jews) kept on living there until 'Umar forced them to go towards Taima' and Ariha'.
Muhammad used the annexed land of the Jews of Khaybar to secure the livelihood of his ever increasing number of wives in his Harem. Sahih Muslim writes:
Book 010, Number 3759:
Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with them) reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) handed over the land of Khaibar (on the condition) of the share of produce of fruits and harvest, and he also gave to his wives every year one hundred wasqs: eighty wasqs of dates and twenty wasqs of barley. When 'Umar became the caliph he distributed the (lands and trees) of Khaibar, and gave option to the wives of Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) to earmark for themselves the land and water or stick to the wasqs (that they got) every year. They differed in this matter. Some of them opted for land and water, and some of them opted for wasqs every year. 'A'isha and Hafsa were among those who opted for land and water.
Muhammad's comrade-in arms, Umar ibn Khattab became the landlord through the land-grab at Khaybar. Here is Sahih Muslim to confirm Umar's appropriation of Jewsih land:
Book 013, Number 4006:
Ibn Umar reported: Umar acquired a land at Khaibar. He came to Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) and sought his advice in regard to it. He said: Allah's Messenger, I have acquired land in Khaibar. I have never acquired property more valuable for me than this, so what do you command me to do with it? Thereupon he (Allah's Apostle) said: If you like, you may keep the corpus intact and give its produce as Sadaqa. So 'Umar gave it as Sadaqa declaring that property must not be sold or inherited or given away as gift. And Umar devoted it to the poor, to the nearest kin, and to the emancipation of slaves, aired in the way of Allah and guests. There is no sin for one, who administers it if he eats something from it in a reasonable manner, or if he feeds his friends and does not hoard up goods (for himself). He (the narrator) said: I narrated this hadith to Muhammad, but as I reached the (words)" without hoarding (for himself) out of it." he (Muhammad' said:" without storing the property with a view to becoming rich." Ibn 'Aun said: He who read this book (pertaining to Waqf) informed me that in it (the words are)" without storing the property with a view to becoming rich."
Book 013, Number 4008:
'Umar reported: I acquired land from the lands of Khaibar. I came to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) and said: I have acquired a piece of land. Never have I acquired land more loved by me and more cherished by me than this. The rest of the hadith is the same, but he made no mention of this:" I narrated it to Muhammad" and what follows.
The Muslims became wealthy and prosperous from the booty of Khaybar. In fact, they were so handsomely rewarded that they cleared all their debts to the Ansars (helpers) and stopped becoming a burden to them. Mubarakpuri, sourcing Sahih Muslim writes:
"On their return to Medinah, the emigrants were able to return to the helpers of Medinah all the gifts they had received. All of this affluence came after the conquest of Khaiber and the economic benefits that the Muslims began to reap."
- Book 19, Number 2961:
Narrated Umar ibn al-Khattab:
Malik ibn Aws al-Hadthan said: One of the arguments put forward by Umar was that he said that the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) received three things exclusively to himself: Banu an-Nadir, Khaybar and Fadak. The Banu an-Nadir property was kept wholly for his emergent needs, Fadak for travellers, and Khaybar was divided by the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) into three sections: two for Muslims, and one as a contribution for his family. If anything remained after making the contribution of his family, he divided it among the poor Emigrants.
In this manner, by using terror and plunder, the Muslims found a large and a permanent source of wherewithal for their survival. In this way, Muhammad rewarded those faithfuls who showed their loyalty to him by accompanying him to Hudaibiya. The captive-women of Khaybar were distributed amongst the Jihadists. Many Jihadists wanted to copulate with these hapless women even when some of them were pregnant. So Muhammad had to promulgate the rules on co-habitation with booty-women. Quoting sources, Ibn Sa'd writes that Muhammad said:
"He who believes in Allah and the last day, should not irrigate the crop of other (i.e. should not cohabit with a pregnant hand-maid before delivery). He who believes in Allah and the last day, should not cohabit with an enslaved woman till she is cleared (i.e. two periods have passed). He who believes in Allah and the last day should not sell the booty till it is divided. He, who believes in Allah and the last day, should not ride the beast of the booty of the Muslims in a way that it becomes lean and then return it to the booty of the Muslims; or wear a cloth and he return it to the booty of the Muslims when it is worn out."
- Volume 2, Book 14, Number 68:
Narrated Anas bin Malik:
Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) offered the Fajr prayer when it was still dark, then he rode and said, 'Allah Akbar! Khaibar is ruined. When we approach near to a nation, the most unfortunate is the morning of those who have been warned." The people came out into the streets saying, "Muhammad and his army." Allah's Apostle vanquished them by force and their warriors were killed; the children and women were taken as captives. Safiya was taken by Dihya Al-Kalbi and later she belonged to Allah's Apostle go who married her and her Mahr was her manumission.
It is reported that some women Jihadists did participate in the expedition of Khyabar. These Muslimahs did not receive any share of booty. Muhammad gave them small gifts from the loot (i.e., they were given from the one-fifth share of the plunder, especially reserved for Muhammad) but he did not assign any share to them.
During this time, some of the exiles from Abyssinia returned to Medina. Among them was Muhammad's cousin, Jafar, Ali's brother. These newly arrived migrants shared in the booty of Khaybar.
While at Khaybar, Muhammad received, as a gift a black slave-boy, Midam, who later, was killed by an arrow. Muhammad claimed that Allah killed him for stealing booty from Khaybar spoils. Here is a Hadith from Malik's Muwatta on this:
Book 21, Number 21.13.25:
Yahya related to me from Malik from Thawr ibn Zayd ad-Dili from Abu'l-Ghayth Salim, the mawla of ibn Muti that Abu Hurayra said, "We went out with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the yearof Khaybar. We did not capture any gold or silver except for personal effects, clothes, and baggage. Rifaa ibn Zayd presented a black slave boy to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, whose name was Midam. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, made for Wadi'l-Qura, and when he arrived there, Midam was unsaddling the camel of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when a stray arrow struck and killed him. The people said, 'Good luck to him! The Garden!' The Messenger of Allah said, 'No! By He in whose hand my self is! The cloak which he took from the spoils on the Day of Khaybar before they were distributed will blaze with fire on him.' When the people heard that, a man brought a sandal-strap or two sandal-straps to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'A sandal-strap or two sandal-straps of fire!' "
After Muhammad finished plundering Khaybar he besieged the Jews of Wadi al-Qura for some nights then returned to Medina (see Terror 53, CH. 14 for details).
Abul Kasem is an Bengali ex-Muslim and academic. He has contributed in Leaving Islam - Apostates Speak Out and Beyond Jihad - Critical Voices from Inside and Why We Left Islam.. He has also written extensively on Islam in various websites and is the author of five e-Books: A Complete Guide to Allah, Root of Terrorism ala Islamic Style, Sex and Sexuality in Islam, Who Authored the Quran? and Women in Islam. Mr. Kasem leaves in Sydney, Australia. He can be contacted at [email protected].