History of Jihad against the Turks (650 - 1050)
13 Mar, 2008
How the Turks shed their blood, fighting the Jihad for Four Hundred years and finally gave up and embraced Islam, and later became the tormentors themselves to carry the bloodied tradition of Jihad into Anatolia (modern Turkey) and the Balkans up to Austria.
The Turks in Pre-Islamic times
Today we read in history that the Ottoman Turks carried the Jihad into Europe. The Turks besieged and sacked Constantinople. To many of us, the Turks before Ataturk reformed Turkey into becoming the Muslim world's first secular republic, were ruthless Jihadis, whose king was the Caliph till 1924, when Ataturk abolished the Caliphate. But we know little of the bloodied struggle that the Turks waged against Islam for 'four hundred years from 650 up to 1050. The first clash of the Turks with the Islamic Jihad took place when the Muslims in their surge through Persia reached the borders of the Sassanid Empire in Khorasan, near Central Asia. In those days the Turks ruled Central Asia. They have been referred to as Turanians by the ancient Persians of Zoroaster's time.
The Turks were so to say a multi-ethnic tribal cluster who were united with the bonds of language. Since ancient times, apart from grazing cattle, the Turks also used to attack settled people in Persia and live off the booty.
Tengri is the god of the old Turkic, Mongolian and Altaic religion named Tengriism. The Mongols called him Tengri, (depicted as Blue Sky) was the highest God of Turks and Mongols. The name "Tengri" (Tana-Gra) means "Ruler, Master of the Land"; there might be some connection with the Sumerian word for god Dingir.
In the pre-islamic Turkish worship of celestial objects, lies the usage of Turkish Muslims of the crescent Moon as their symbol. Incidentally, the crescent moon, was borrowed by other non-Arab Muslims from the Turks. We may note that the Arabs never use the crescent moon as their symbol.
The Huns, Bulgars, Ughirs, Seljuks, Qarluqs were some of the different tribes that made up the vast Turkish nation. Of these the Huns and the Bulgars embraced Christianity and the rest of the Turkish clans embraced Islam. Before embracing Islam or Christianity, in the 3rd and 4th centuries the Turks (Huns, also called White Huns) had attacked the Roman empire, the Sassanid and Achaemenian empires in Persia and had also invaded India. They were a warlike race, who would not easily be subjugated and led a nomadic life. They were hardy tribal race who had strains of Caucasoid and Mongoloid ancestry.
The pre-Islamic religion of the Turks was centered around their celestial god named Tengri (or Tanri)
Tengri is the god of the old Turkic, Mongolian and Altaic religion named Tengriism. The Mongols called him Tengri, (depicted as Blue Sky) was the highest God of Turks and Mongols. The name "Tengri" -(Tana-Gra) means "Ruler, Master of the Land"; there might be some connection with the Sumerian word for god Dingir.
In the pre-islamic Turkish worship of celestial objects lies the usage of Turkish Muslims of the crescent Moon as their symbol. Incidentally, the crescent moon, was borrowed by other Muslims from the Turks. We may note that the Arabs never use the crescent moon as their symbol.
The core beings in Tengriism are Sky-Father (Tengri/Tenger Etseg) and Mother Earth (Eje/Gazar Eej). In history, Chinggis Khan (Gengis Khan), the unifier of the Mongolian nation, based his power on a mandate from Tengri himself, and began all his declarations with the words "by the will of Eternal Blue Heaven."
The symbols of Tengri were a cross (betraying Christian influences), the skies and the sun. It is often confused with a sun-worshipping religion, but the sun is merely a symbol of Tengri.
Deep in history neither the Mongols nor the Turks were Muslims, but in fact had waged a bloodied struggle against Islam. The Turks and Mongols were neighbors and had mixed ancestry since antiquity. Both held Central Asia between them when the Arab Muslim invaders appeared on the scene, after over-running the Persian Sassanid Empire in the year 651. Ironically the Turks had to struggle with Islam which came to them through the medium of the Islamized Persians who had been newly converted to Islam at the point of the sword by the Arabs.
In modern Turkish, the word "Tanri" is used as the generic word for "god", and is also often used today by practicing Muslims to refer to their God in Turkish as an alternative to the word "Allah", the - originally Arabic - Islamic word for "God".
Khan is pre-Islamic title
Khan is a typical Turkish royal title and is, by default today, considered to be a Muslim name. But Genghis Khan and Hulagu Khan were not Muslims, they were in fact were inveterate enemies of the Muslims. They laid waste a large swathe of the Islamic crescent in the 13th century, till their descendants were ultimately defeated by the Muslims and were forced to convert to Islam. After this conversion, till today we have come to believe that the name Khan is a Muslim name and that the Turks and the Mughals (Mongols) have always been Muslims.
Deep in history neither the Mongols nor the Turks were Muslims, and had waged a bloodied struggle against Islam before their forcible conversion. The Turks and Mongols were neighbors and had mixed ancestry since antiquity. Both held Central Asia between them when the Arab Muslim invaders appeared on the scene, after over-running the Persian Sassanid Empire in the year 651.
The Defeat of Sassanid Persia, opened up the Turkish domains of Central Asia to the Jihadis
After clearing these pockets of Persian resistance, the Arabs made the main Persian town of Merv the target of attack. Merv was the capital of Khurasan and here the last Sassanid king Yazdgard had sought refuge with his courtiers who had being fleeing before the advancing Arab Muslims, since the Arab invasion of Persia in 637 after the disastrous battle of Qadisiyyah. The Persian army was now in tatters and in no position to put up any effective resistance to the invading Arabs. On hearing of the Muslim advance, Yazdgard left for Balkh. No resistance was offered at Merv, and the Muslims occupied the capital of Khurasan without lifting their swords.
When the Arabs first invaded Turkish lands, it was reported to the Arab commander Ahnaf that the practice with the Turks was that the war commenced at dawn and before the war could start three heralds blew bugles and then the Turkish force marched to the battle. To subvert the Turks, before the night of the war, Ahnaf hid himself in a safe place outside the Turkish camp. As soon as the Turkish herald came out of the Turkish camp to blow the bugle, Ahnaf overpowered him and killed the Turk with his sword. When the second herald came he met the same fate. The third herald also met the same fate. So on that day the bugles did not blow for the Turkish army.
When the bugles did not blow the Khan of Farghana came out of the camp to see what had happened to the heralds. When he saw that all of them were dead he regarded this as a bad omen. At the spur of the moment he decided that the Turks should not involve themselves with the Muslims. He ordered his force to withdraw and march back to Farghana.
This is how the Arab Muslims deceived the Turks into retreating. The Islamic Jihad had drawn the first Turkish blood thru subterfuge.
The Arab commander Ahnaf stayed at Merv for some time to reorganize the administration and to await further reinforcements from Kufa. In the meantime the Persian forces gathered in considerable strength at Balkh. Yazdgard sought aid from the neighboring Turkish state Farghana and the Khan of Farghana personally led a Turkish contingent to Balkh.
Having received reinforcements, Ahnaf led the Muslim forces to Balkh. The Muslims had experience of battling with the Persians but they had little experience of war with the Turks. Ahnaf wanted to avoid war with the Turks, and in this connection he thought of devious ways whereby the Turks should abandon the cause of Yazdgard.
So when the Arab Muslims first invaded Turkish lands, the Muslims decided to use subterfuge. It was reported to the Arab commander Ahnaf that the practice with the Turks was that the war commenced at dawn and before the war could start three heralds blew bugles and then the Turkish force marched to the battle. To subvert the Turks, before the night of the war, Ahnaf hid himself in a safe place outside the Turkish camp. As soon as the Turkish herald came out of the Turkish camp to blow the bugle, Ahnaf overpowered him and killed the Turk with his sword. When the second herald came he met the same fate. The third herald also met the same fate. So on that day the bugles did not blow for the Turkish army.
When the bugles did not blow the Khan of Farghana came out of the camp to see what had happened to the heralds. When he saw that all of them were dead he regarded this as a bad omen. At the spur of the moment he decided that the Turks should not involve themselves with the Muslims. He ordered his force to withdraw and march back to Farghana. This is how the Arab Muslims deceived the Turks into retreating. The Islamic Jihad had drawn the first Turkish blood thru subterfuge.
In the space of 650-1050 AD a number of events of importance transpired in Central Asia. These four hundred years were the fiercest in the Turkish struggle against the Islamic Jihad. The next four hundred years were to see the gradual transformation of the pagan Turks into Muslims. The Turks shed their blood fighting the Jihad for four hundred years but finally gave up and embraced Islam, to later become Jihadis themselves to carry the bloodied tradition of aggression and forcible conversion into Anatolia (modern Turkey) and through the Balkans up to Austria and Poland.
The next three hundred years witnessed the untold story of the Turkish resistance to Islam. Ironically the Turks had to struggle with Islam which came to them through the medium of the Muslim Persians who had been newly converted to Islam at the point of the sword by the Arabs.
The Persian converts to Islam overthrow the Arab Umayyad Caliphs and replace them with the Persianized Abbasid Caliphs
In the space of 650-1050 AD a numbers of events of importance transpired in Central Asia. These four hundred years were the fiercest in the Turkish struggle against the Jihad. The next four hundred years were to see the gradual transformation of the pagan Turks into Muslims. The Turks shed their blood fighting the Jihad for four hundred years and finally gave up and embraced Islam, to later become the tormentors themselves to carry the bloodied tradition of Jihad into Anatolia (modern Turkey) and Balkans up to Austria and Poland.
In the year 750, an important event that transformed Central Asia. This event was the overthrow of the Umayyads Caliphate and its replacement by the Abbasid Caliphate. While Umayyads of Damascus were Arabs who had descended from Abu Sufyan the Chieftain of Mecca at the time of Mohammed. The newly converted Zoroastrian Persians wanted to regain their pre-eminent power in Persia. They organized themselves and marched against the Umayyad army. The two armies met at a place called Zab. Here the Persian Abbasids defeated the Arab Umayyads and established a new caliphate near Ctesiphon the site of the ancient capital of the Sassanid Persians. They named this city Baghdad which was to be the capital of the Abbasids from 750 up to its sack by the Mongols in 1258.
A leading commander of the Abbasid army was a Zoroastrian convert to Islam named Behzadan, who had assumed the name Abu Muslim. He played a leading role in the war and deposed the Umayyad caliph, and placed the Persianized Abbasids as Caliphs and as the head of the Muslim world. With this revolution the leadership of the Muslim world had passed from Arab hands into Persian hands, a leadership which they had lost a century earlier, when the Arabs had destroyed the Sassanid Persian empire.
An important change now was that the Persians who as Zoroastrians a century earlier were victims of Islam had now embraced Islam and had become the new vanguard of the bloodied creed of Islam. Their victims were to be the Turks of Central Asia.
Abu Muslim a Zoroastrian Persian convert to Islam, attacked and Islamized the Turks
Shortly after victory at the battle of Zab, and the establishment of the Abbasid Caliphate at Baghdad, Abu Muslim was commissioned to conduct a Jihad in Central Asia to exterminate the Kaffirs once and for all. It was a great low point for the Western branch of the Blue Turks. Their great Khan Su'lu who was a bulwark against the Moslems and the Chinese in the wars of 720 and 723, was assassinated by the Arabs. The pagan Turkic rulers of Samarqand and Bokhara came under a heavy assault from the ghazis after the fall of Su'lu when the Arabs with 300 giant trebuchets stormed the cities and forcibly imposed Islam with the destruction of the pagan places of worship.
Defeat of the Chinese at the Battle of the Talas River with the invading Muslims sealed the fate of the Turkish resistance to Islam
Archaeological evidence shows that these Turkic cities were cosmopolitan with Buddhism, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism and the Tengri cults of the Altaics were the various creeds that were practiced. The Arabs under Abu Muslim savagely crushed, the last attempt made by the populations of Samarqand and Bokhara to rid themselves of the murderous Muslim Ghazis. Abu Muslim sent his victorious commander of these wars, Ziyad ibn Salih, with a band of 40000 ghazis, to wage a Jihad on the Chinese. The Arab army marched from the south towards Talas. The Chinese general Kao (of Korean origin), decided to resist the Muslim invasion and marched towards Aulie-Ata on the Talas river with 100,000 Chinese troops in cavalry and infantry divisions.
In the Battle of the Talas river, the Betrayal of the Qarluq Turks led to the defeat of the Chinese at Arab hands
On July 10th 751 AD the Arab and Chinese armies took to the field in Aulie-Ata on the backs of the Talas river. The Chinese cavalry seemed to initially overwhelm the Arab cavalry, but the Arabs had worked out a deal with one of the many Turkish contingents of the Chinese army viz., the Qarluq Turks, by promising them wealth and freedom in return for embracing Islam and betraying their Chinese masters. The Qarluqs who held a grudge against the Chinese for having reduced them to vassalage, viewed this as an opportunity to throw off the Chinese yoke by using the Arabs, and had planned to later throwing off the Arab yoke as well and regaining their freedom from both the Chinese and the Arabs. The Qarluq Turks later played the main role in converting other Turkish tribes notably the Seljuk Turks to Islam.
At the battle of the Talas river where the Arab and the Chinese armies clashed, the Qarluqs who were a part of the Chinese army, opened a breach in their own ranks and allowed the Arabs to ford the river and helped them to encircle a part of the Chinese infantry butchering it to the last man.
It was Mustapha Kemal Pasha (fondly called Ataturk ' father of the Turks) who saw beyond Islam and wanted to build for the Turks a future bereft of Islam. He based his vision on three precepts:
Modernization by abolishing the Caliphate
Westernizing by de-islamizing Turkey
Retuning to Turkish roots by taking on ethnic Turkish names in place of Arabic Islamic names.
The Qarluq archers then surrounded their paymaster the general of the Chinese army Kao and treacherously shot him down. Now the Arabs followed their heinous practice of sticking the severed head of an enemy and parading it before the enemy army. The Chinese not being used to such grisly war tactics, fell into confusion and disarray, not knowing who had betrayed them, and their General Kao. They broke ranks and fell back into confusion, shaking the Chinese center, which was rapidly assaulted by the Arab heavy cavalry and destroyed. Thus due to Muslim subterfuge and savagery the infallible Chinese war machine gave way under combined assault of the Arabs and the traitor Qarluqs, and they faced a heavy rout. From behind, the treacherous Qarluqs fell upon the Chinese baggage trains and supplies carrying away all they could and receded back into the steppe.
The Arabs rounded up tens of thousands of Chinese and their non-Qarluq Turk allies and took them to Samarqand from where Abu Muslim sent them to Baghdad and Damascus to be sold as slaves, each worth a dirham. One Chinese survivor mentions being kept as cattle in the Arab prison camps. Abu Muslim and Ziyad made huge financial gains out of this slave trade and used it to pay their armies. More importantly the Arabs forced the Turk and Chinese prisoners to teach them the art of making siege trains and catapult machines, which the Islamized Turks were to use successfully in their attacks on the Byzantine cities.
The Qarluq Turks aimed at playing the Chinese and the Muslims against each other to gain their own independence
The Qarluq Turks wanted independence from the Chinese so they made a pretence of embracing Islam to obtain Arab support to defeat the Chinese. The Qarluqs had planned to later throw off the Arab yoke as well by repudiating Islam and regaining their freedom from both the Chinese and the Arabs. But little did the Qarluqs realize that in working out a deal with the Arabs, while they would succeed in throwing off the Chinese yoke, they would have to bring themselves into the fold of Islam, from which there was no escape! The Qarluqs were forced to remain Muslim and whenever any of them reneged their Islamic faith, they were put to death while the luckier among them were enslaved by the Arabs and Persian Muslims.
The later history of the Qarluqs was as Muslims who resigned themselves to remaining as satellites of the Arabs after having thrown off the Chinese yoke and with it also the only possibility of liberating themselves from the grip of Islam. It was this devious conversion of the Quarluqs that triggered the conversion of the greater Turkish nation to Islam in the next three centuries from 750 to 1050.
The Turks who had zealously retained their freedom from their neighbors the Chinese, and the Zoroastrian Persians for more than a millennium, finally began succumbing to Islam due to a tactical pretense of the Qarluqs of embracing Islam, for securing Arabs support and throwing off Chinese suzerainty. A deal that proved costly for Turkish independence that was now permanently enslaved into the prison of Islam. The Turks henceforth would remain satellites of the Arabs, a position they sought to reverse, by themselves becoming more aggressive champions of Islam, and reducing their Arabs masters to vassalage status when they established their Seljuk and later Uthman (Ottoman) dynasties.
Turkish Resistance to Islam
But before they would finally resign to their fate to being Muslims the Turks waged a bloodied war against the Muslim incursion of their homeland in Central Asia. After the Battle of the Talas river, the Arabs captured many of the non-Qarluq Turks who were allies of the Chinese and deported them as salves to Baghdad. They are reported to have totaled up to seventy thousand. Not only were these enslaved Turks were forced to become Muslims, but enslavement was the tactic used by the Islamized Turks to convert the non-Muslim Turks to Islam.
The Conversion of the Seljuk Turks to Islam
The next Turkish clan to be converted to Islam was the Seljuks. They were a proud imperial clan among the Turks, and after the conversion of the Qarluqs to Islam, it was the Seljuks who held the banner of Turkish resistance to Islam. The Seljuks remained unsubdued for another century and half. But the Arabs, Persian and Islamized Turks mounted many bloodied campaigns against them and other non-Muslim Turks who were allied to the Seljuks. In this series of battles the fortunes fluctuated from one side to the other, at times the Muslims were victorious and at others the Turks emerged victorious.
Tactics used by the Muslims to convert the Turks to Islam
In this unwritten chapter of the Turkish resistance to Islam, the Muslims (who in this case were mainly the Zoroastrian Persian converts to Islam), devised new tactics and subterfuge to enslave a proud and fiercely independent people which characterized the Turkish clan. In this battle the Turks did not lack in bravery, as they were born warriors and spent a large part of their lives on horseback. But whenever the non-Muslim Turks were victorious, they destroyed the Muslim camps, slaughtered their armies, destroyed their cities, and torched their fields, but it did not cross their minds, to enforce any religion on the defeated Muslims. Those of the Muslims that the Turks set free, either went back to the Muslim controlled cities, or stayed on in the Turkish areas and attempted to spread Islam. A mindset that was totally absent among the non-Muslim Turks. (It was only when the Christians of Europe liberated Muslim lands, did they attempt to re-convert the Muslims to Christianity.) But the pre-Islamic Turks knew of no such tactic and they made no attempt to roll back the tide of Islam when they were victorious over the Muslims.
So while the Christens of Europe succeeded in turning back the tide of Islam in the middle ages, the Turks failed to resist Islam. Herein lies an important factor in defeating Islam, forcing the reconversion of the defeated Muslims out of Islam. If the defeated Muslims are allowed to retain their faith (which is nothing but a cult of death and murder), they venom of Islam will become powerful once again to overwhelm the non-Muslim victors and ultimately defeat them. So whenever the Muslims are defeated and subjugated they need to be made to give up Islam, at the pain of death if necessary. But Islam has to be wiped out of peoples minds if the victory over Islam has to be consolidated and made permanent. As long as a person remains a Muslim, he/she remains an ever present danger to any non-Islamic (civilized) way of life.
Muslims held Turkish princes as captives to be brought up as Muslims
In their struggle with the pre-Islamic Turks the tactic of the Muslims was to use every victory to press Islam on the defeated Turks. At every negotiation with the Turks, when the Turks faced a defeat, the Muslims would ask for custody of the princes and princesses of the Turkish royal family on the excuse of holding them as a guarantee that the Turks would keep their word given during the negotiations. These royal captives would be brought up in the Islamic tradition and their minds jaundiced in favor of Islam. In many cases when their Muslim captors were satisfied that the royal captives had mentally accepted Islam, the Shahada (declaration of the acceptance of Islam) was pronounced to them, and they were released to return to their kingdoms, whenever they had to ascend the throne in their clans and tribes.
Most important of all, Ataturk visualized that in future there could be folks like Abdullah Gul and Erdogan who might want to undo the revolutionary secular reforms initiated by Ataturk and roll back Turkey into the Islamic age. To prevent this, he made the Turkish military the custodian of secular traditions. The Turkish military has intervened to upset any Islamist take of Turkey on many occasions during the last ninety years. It is quite possible the military will be called upon to take the reins of power once again, especially with the impending partition of Iraq and the coming of Kurdistan as an independent country with its destabilizing effects on Turkey's Kurds and Erdogan taking advantage of this scenario to sideline the military to seize more power for himself and his Islamist party.
With a Muslim at the helm in a non-Muslim Turkish clan, the conversion of the rest of the clan to Islam was only a matter of time. This was one of the tactics used by the Muslims to infiltrate Islam into the Turkish nation. By the middle of the eleventh century, most of the Turks had embraced Islam, and thenceforth it was they who became the vanguard of the Jihad to carry the bloodied trial of Islam into Anatolia and the Balkans. It was these Islamized Seljuk Turks who kept up a constant pressure on the Byzantine Empire inflicting on the Byzantines a string of defeats starting from the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 in Eastern Anantolia. It was these steady attacks and migration of the Seljuk Turks into Anatolia which gave the present Turkish character to Anatolia making it the Turkey of today.
The Seljuk (and later the Ottoman) Turks also carried with them the tradition of taking child hostages and bringing them up as Muslims, a tactic of which they had earlier been victims at the hands of the Arab and Persian Muslims. This led to the institution of the Turkish Jannisaries The Jannisaries (Mercenaries from Jan = Life and Nisar = given away. The Muslims will have you believe that Janisarry comes from Yeni = new and Chery = soldier, but this is an eyewash meant to hide Muslim atrocities on non-Muslims) were Christian children taken captive by the Turks when they invaded Anatolia and the Balkans. The Jannisaries is a practice derived by the Turks from the Arab and Persian Muslims tactics used against them (the Turks) during their pre-Islamic days.
But the irony of history is that the Islamization of the Turks and the Mongols also started their migration from the traditional homelands in the Steppes of Central Asia into Anatolia and onwards in the Balkans. Today the word Turk is not mainly identified with the Turkic peoples of Central Asia who make up the Kazakh, Uzbek, Khirgiz and Tajik people (all of whom were called the Turanians in ancient times). Today the word Turk implies an inhabitant of Anatolia which is called Turkey. But in ancient times the inhabitants of Anatolia were not the Turks, they were Hittites (and Indo-European people) who later mingled with the Greek speaking inhabitants who built the Hellenized kingdoms of Sardis and Troy.
Hulagu's invasion - The Turko-Mongol attack on Muslim Iran and Middle East was similar to the Crusades, in that it was a Non-Muslim Counterattack on Islam
Returning to pre-Islamic Central Asia, we need to bring attention to another curious fact that today not many historians have pointed out that the subterfuge, savage cruelty and other foul tactics which the Muslims used to convert the Turks to Islam, had led to a gradual accumulation of bitterness and a desire for revenge against the Muslims in the Turks and their related clans the Mongols.
Over the centuries many Persian Zoroastrians, the Persian Nestorian Christians, the Turks, Chinese and the Mongols had nursed within themselves a grievance against the Muslims expansion into Persia and Central Asia. It is this accumulation of grievances that led to the burst of the Mongol attack on Islamdom from 1200 that culminated in the sack and slaughter of Baghdad in 1258 under Hulagu Khan who was egged on to this path by his Nestorian Persian Christian wife.
Historians have failed to interpret the attack of the Mongols on Muslim Persia, and the Middle East as the Turko-Mongol counterattack on Islam; as were the Crusades, a Christian counterattack against Islam in the 11th century, We shall examine this in detail in the chapter on the Mongol resistance to Islam. Suffice it to note here that Hulagu's attack on Islamdom was a collective expression of resistance to Islam from the pre-Islamic Persians who had settled in China and Mongolia, and the Turks who had been waging a struggle against Islam in the 8th to the 10th centuries. It was a result of historical wrongs committed by the Arab Muslims on the Zoroastrian Persians, and by the Arab Muslims along with the Islamized Persians on the Turks, and in turn, by the Arabs with the Islamized Persians and the Islamized Turks on non-Islamic Turks and Mongols and Chinese.
Ataturk, the Visionary
It Mustapha Kemal Pasha (fondly called Ataturk 'father of the Turks) who saw beyond Islam and wanted to build for the Turks a future bereft of Islam. He based his vision on three precepts:
Modernization of Turkey by abolishing the Caliphate
Westernizing by de-islamizing Turkey
Retuning to Turkish roots by taking on ethnic Turkish names in place of Arabic Islamic names
Ataturk's first and revolutionary measure was to abolish the Caliphate. Thus with one stroke he dealt two blows to Islamic orthodoxy. With the Caliphate abolished by a Turkish nationalist military commander, Turkey was no longer the focus of the Islamic world. He severed Turkey's most critical link with the Islamic world. Atatirk supplemented this with the abolition of the Arabic script and replaced it with the Latin script. He abolished the Chador (for ladies ) and Fez for men (Islamic cap with a tuft), and replaced it with Western dress. Women were to don Western skirts, while men were to be in Western three piece suits.
Ataturk banned the growing of beards by men and the wearing of even scarves by women. He outlawed the issuing of the Muezzins call for prayer and made this a private affair, with even the Muslim prayer leaders, priests and preachers having to be beardless and don Western dress!. He encouraged the next generation of Turks to take on ethnic pre-Islamic Turkish names like Bulent Ecevit, Turgut Ozal, Mesut Yilmaz, Necmettin Erbakan and Tansu Ciller, etc.
Most important of all, Ataturk visualized that in future there could be folks like Abdullah Gul and Erdogan who might want to undo the revolutionary secular reforms initiated by Ataturk and roll back Turkey into the Islamic age. To prevent this, he made the Turkish military the custodian of secular traditions. During the last ninety years the Turkish military has intervened to upset any Islamist take of Turkey on many occasions. It is quite possible the military will be called upon to take the reins of power once again, especially with the impending partition of Iraq and the formation of Iraqi Kurdistan as an independent country with its destabilizing effects on Turkey's Kurds and Erdogan taking advantage of this scenario to sideline the military to seize more power for himself and his Islamist party.
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Date: Thursday March 13, 2008
Time: 05:55:40 -0700
FYI, there WEREN"T any Turks betwe.650-1100._________________At that time, there were still the Greeks of Constantinople and all the way inland in Anatolia. The Ottomans were a migrating tribe that started coming in from Asia.
Date: Thursday March 13, 2008
Time: 07:23:59 -0700
One of the most informative article I have ever read. I would be reading it again and again to absorb it fully. Mustafa Kamal was right in calling Islam: the absurd theology of an immoral Beduine: ref Holy terror by Amir Taheri page187. Islam is basically a vicious and wicked ideology. There is nothing good about it. It is propagated as religion of peace by Mohammadons day and night but they deliberately avoid mentioning that it is fitted with a war- head of TERROR.
Name: An Infidel Indian
Date: Thursday March 13, 2008
Time: 08:41:34 -0700
What an amazingly evil religion !! If these Muslims put even 1/100th of the effort they put into Islam, to other productive use,the Muslims would be easily the most successful people in the world. The small gang of Parsis who fled Iran and landed in India are producing more wealth than the entire Iranian nation ( minus it's Oil). Just shows what a wonderful effect Islam has on it's adherents !!!
Date: Thursday March 13, 2008
Time: 09:10:18 -0700
Turkey's glorious past, uncertain future
If a country's architecture can be taken as indicating its status in the world, that of Istanbul reflects fairly accurately both Turkey's past and its present. While the grandeur of its historic buildings are vivid reminders of past glories, the blandness of its contemporary buildings-concrete and glass boxes-reflects the disrupting influence and ultimate vacuousness of its Westernization. Less than a century ago Istanbul was the capital of a world power that had ruled a vast empire for nearly four centuries, since the capture of the Byzantine capital Constantinople by Sultan Mehmet II (1432-1481CE), better known as Sultan Fatih, in 1453. Renamed Istanbul, and symbolically bridging the gap between Europe and Asia, the city became the capital of a new empire that carried Islam deep into Europe, and ruled Muslim societies in three continents. Today, the city boasts some of the greatest monuments of Islamic architecture. The Blue Mosque, commissioned by Sultan Ahmet I and designed by Sedefkar Ahmet Agha, one of the most brilliant students of the great architect Mirmar Sinan, and built between 1609-1616, stands majestically opposite the Aya Sofia and Topkapi museums, flanked by the Marmara Sea to the south and the Golden Horn to the east. Topkapi-meaning the cannon gate-was built by Sultan Mehmet II in 1467 and served as the official residence and court of the sultans until 1839, when Sultan Abdulmecit I moved to the new palace of Dolmabahace on the Bosphorus Sea. It was later converted into a museum, which now houses several relics of the noble Prophet, upon whom be peace, including the original letter he sent to the Roman governor of Egypt, Muqaiqoos, one of his swords, and a sword that he gave to Khalid ibn Walid (ra), the companion famed as a brilliant general who led the early Muslims to many victories. Istanbul's other great monument is the Eyup Sultan Mosque, named after the companion Ayub Ansari (ra), in whose house the noble Prophet (saw) initially resided in Madinah after his migration from Makkah, until a modest house was built for him. Ayub Ansari (ra) is buried in a compound alongside the mosque. His grave is carefully preserved and visitors can view it through an outer railing. Worshippers and visitors throng the mosque at all times of the day and night, but the most moving scenes are witnessed during fajr (morning) and Isha (night) salats. One cannot help but contrast the respect shown by the Turks to the memory of Ayub Ansari (ra) with the vandalism of historic sites in the Hijaz by the Saudis. Jannatul Maula in Makkah, Jannatul Baqi in Madinah and the cemetery of the shuhada' at Uhud are all in a sorry state. The Prophet's first wife Khadijah (ra) is buried in Jannatul Maula, but it suffers from neglect; it is virtually impossible to locate the grave of this illustrious mother of the believers, the first person to accept Islam. Jannatul Baqi, where numerous companions of the Prophet (saw) and members of his family are buried, has suffered even more. On the spurious pretext of the risk of shirk, the Saudis have destroyed almost all the Islamic historical sites of Makkah and Madinah, while carefully preserving relics of their own sorry history, such as the tip of the spear that was lodged in the door of the Mismak fortress when Abdul Aziz ibn Saud, founder of the Saudi dynasty struck it. After their conquest of the Hijaz in 1924, the Saudis embarked upon wholesale destruction of historic buildings and monuments. In the name of development, concrete monstrosities now tower above even the Ka'aba, and the Masjid al-Haram is surrounded by hotels and shopping malls apparently modeled on New York or Los Angeles. McDonalds and Pizza Hut stores, and other symbols of Western consumerism, stand in stark contrast to the spirituality of the Haram. Traffic congestion and noise add to the distractions from the spiritual journey that pilgrims aspire to while circumambulating the Ka'aba or running between the hills of Safa' and Marwa. By contrast, the Turks should be proud that the Ottomans went to extraordinary lengths to preserve Islamic monuments, especially those relating to the time of the Prophet (saw) and his companions (ra), when they ruled the Haramain. However, like the Saudis, Turkey's secular rulers are today determined to destroy their own Islamic heritage in the name of modernization and progress. The establishment in Turkey suffers from a severe crisis of identity: it wants to abandon its glorious past in order to adopt the West's lifestyle and habits. It is one of the few countries in the world where hijab is officially banned in government offices and universities. Even the Islam-hating West does not go to such extremes. Bizarrely, the wife of the Prime Minister, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, is barred from attending state functions at the presidential palace because she chooses to wear hijab, while Turkish law prohibits hijab at official events. What Turkey's generals fail to understand is that when Turkey held the banner of Islam, it was the leader of the Muslim world; by adopting secularism and imitating the West, it has become the sick man of Europe, facing an uncertain future. But the fact that the vast majority of Turkish women continue to wear hijab reflects a commitment to Islam among ordinary Turks that decades of aggressive secularism have failed to obliterate. This commitment holds out the hope that Istanbul might yet again emerge as a centre of Islamic civilization and power, and a source of inspiration for all Muslims, Insha'Allah.
Name: Re: Jorge
Date: Thursday March 13, 2008
Time: 10:38:28 -0700
It's not true what you are telling. Turkey is the only developed islamic country without oil or gas resources. The per capita income is higher than any arab country except the few very oil rich countries. It also enjoys a higher living standard than Iran and maybe even Lybia. It is the secularism which enabled Turkey to develop to higher productivity and higher living standards. And the ottoman empire collapsed during WW I because it ran bankrupt just like all the arab countries will when they run out of oil. An islamic country without oil is just like Afghanistan or Somalia. So much glory indeed!
Date: Thursday March 13, 2008
Time: 11:41:51 -0700
Muslims armies are most ruthless barbarians. You cannot expect them to follow any rules or treaties. they also look to win by deceit. that holds true for the common islamist today as well. their number one weapon is deceit. never have any doubt whether a muslim will back stab you. that is a given.
Name: The doom of the Ottoman Empire - because of Islam
Date: Thursday March 13, 2008
Time: 12:24:25 -0700
Islam is behind the collapse of the ill man from the bosporus. Modern science and technology could not develop in an islamic environment. After the siege of vienna 1683 the ottomans lost one fight after another because they were behind in terms of technology and science. And they were behind in terms of education. Kemal Atatuerk found another reason: most Muslims mothers are totally uneducated and they cannot teach their children anything. It´s also proof that the islamic doctrin of sexual apartheid and segregation is nonsense. It is much better to learn from each other than to live separate lifes. The islamic way is wrong. Secularism is the right way. Just compare modern Turkey to Morokko or Jemen. There are worlds between these countries.
Date: Thursday March 13, 2008
Time: 16:15:19 -0700
The collaborators of this vile cult is the West's leftists allowed to run rampant in the Universities, media - the New York Times and the British Bismillah Cowards (BBC) are the two most dangerous propagandists/doublespeak agents of islamic caliphate. THE DIFFERENCE between the West politicians who all, I suspect, harbour a desire to indulge in islam's perversities of sex with six month olds, raping 6 year olds, using women as flesh of meat to be discarded when boredom sets in, etc. It is for this reason that the civilised West politicians refuse to read the quran , to lack the courage to call a spade a spade. These are the traitors who will lead their citizens for slaughter. Believe it. On German soil, Turkish pm Erdogan told cheering Turkish workers and Germans of Turkish ancestry that “assimilation is crime against humanity”. Conveniently ignored by the DIMWITS of Europe and increasingly America . Ripe for conquest through sharia which increasingly finds legitimacy in the West. Citizens ae as much to blame for electing politicians dedicated to appeasement into office will find the enemy at your throat. ON THE OTHER HAND, Russia has become the frontier between Europe and the Islamic world and is not prepared to dissolve quietly into the ummah like the emasculated Europeans. Russia was killing ihadists, but thanks to idiotic (always) US intervention the Jihadists are busy killing you lot. Russia will kill every single muslim on its soil, to regain its Empire glory. . Force, duplicity and bargains with the devil are the hallmarks of Russian strategy = they are real men. 300 years of fighting the scourge of earth. CHINA . 11 April 2005, under the title : China: Religious Repression of Uighur Muslims . In that long article we learn that "The Chinese government vets... what version of the Koran is acceptable".That means indeed that the Chinese authorities in charge of religious education have at least taken the pain to read the Koran - which most probably their Western counterparts probably never did. And if there are "expurgated versions" of that book, it is that while reading it they identified in it the numerous passages (insults to unbelievers, call to murders, apology of lying to, and deceiving, non-muslims) that are not only against the most basic values of the human species but also a direct threat to the public order and social peace of any society, nation or state. As the Chinese do not feel any compulsion to be tolerant to Islam as one of the "people of the Book. They forbade versions of the Koran that could inspire inimical and dangerous thoughts to the very sensitive minds of young readers. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2005/04/11/china10447.htm The Chinese have made it clear, in the only language that terrorists understand, that they will not tolerate the spread of islam into their world. China has not forgotten her history with the muslim murderers in 650 – 751. The Battle at Talas River, the only battle between Arab muslim forces and the army of the Chinese Middle Kingdom is kept alive in every Chinese. The 18 million Urghurs concentrated in the Xinjiang province are subjected to adhere to a state-controlled version of their religion, amd banners placed around town warn locals not to stray from the official faith. The imams are not even allowed to issue the call to prayer using a public address system. They are repeatedly asked to learn more Mandarin. Their youths are dissuaded from inheriting islamic culture ,the govt. has banned children from entering mosques, studying Islam, or celebrating Islamic holidays. More importantly, the one child policy applies so no chance of breeding like rats. The Urghurs call China the cruellest nation in the world. Well, China is only too happy to export the lot of them to their pie-in-the sky mid east paradise only none are willing to move there . The world can hope on China, the next superpower, and Russia. Sing a dirge and requiem for Britainstan, parts of Europe, not Germany, France, East Europe though.
Date: Friday March 14, 2008
Time: 09:47:27 -0700
"allah, the pagan moon god. The crescent represents Allah and the star represents his daughters al-lat, al-manat, and al-uzza." In fact, the ancient Mother Goddess of the Middle East, was masculinized into "Allah." Barbara Walker the "Women's DIctionary" states: "So important was the Moon Goddess in pre-islamic Arabia, that her emblem cme to represent the entire country, and still does so, as the lunar crescent. As Manat, the old Moon=mother of Mecca, she once ruled the fates of all her sons, who also calle her Al-Lat, the Goddess. In Central Asia, her heavenly orb was the "MIRROR" that reflected everything in the world.
Date: Tuesday March 18, 2008
Time: 09:30:39 -0700
But what really PISSES me off - is that the SCUM - the ASS#%*@ ! - who writes all the history of JIhads - includes within the text - HIS VITRIOLIC ENCOURAGEMENT TO BOMB - TO DROP NUCLEAR BOMBS ON ALL THE MOSLEMS ! TO UTTERLY DESTROY EVERY SINGLE MOSLEM! __________I DON'T need to read this interspersed in the histories of the various countries. - I do NOT want that!______I've already informed the Webmaster of this site-M.A. Khan, but he chooses to ignore it. >_____________I don't want to destroy innocent civilians. I don't want to make more enemies out of friends.
Name: Jannathul firdhous
Date: Thursday March 27, 2008
Time: 10:01:20 -0700
ALLHA is good for me but I love allha and allha is a good but I am working very hard
Name: jannathul firdhous
Date: Monday April 07, 2008
Time: 04:32:17 -0700
allha is a very very very very good at everyone
Date: Wednesday June 25, 2008
Time: 09:13:45 -0700
we will dominate world inshallah! from ottoman turk..
Name: reiko grand cayman
Date: Saturday July 12, 2008
Time: 08:26:30 -0700
i would like to know more about jihad, im just a normal guy not a cop or spy or anything like that if anyone is part of the group and would like to enlighten i would be very greatful as i really want to be part of the new world email@example.com
Date: Tuesday September 02, 2008
Time: 22:21:44 -0700
inshaallah we will dominate the world soon. remember HIM always