History of the Arabs: Muhammad's Horrors and Ironical Legacy
27 May, 2009
- His early life and his life in general are not documented because his pagan Arab surrounding was steeped in ignorance and illiteracy, with very little knowledge of writing or even the materials to use there of. Almost all that we know about Muhammad comes from one-sided ‘Islamic’ sources – invariably legendary, mythological and contradictory – none of which are PRIMARY or even SECONDARY.
The first ‘records’ of his life were written almost 150 years after his death by Ibn Ishaq’s ‘Sirat Rasool Allah’ (died c.767 CE) based upon – generally one sided and faded as well as altered Traditions – oral reports about him. These were subsequently preserved in the recension of ibn Hisham almost 200 years later (died c.833 CE). Another of the earliest sources was al Waqidi’s Kitab al Maghazi c.130 after the death of Muhammad.
The most revealing indication for the lack of veracity in the Traditions (oral stories allegedly describing what Muhammad said, did, instructed, etc in his life time) is one of the Islamic records based upon a life time of research by Imam al Bukhari c. 250 years AFTER the death of Muhammad. He allegedly collected about 600,000 Hadiths (Oral Traditions) of which about 7700 stories only, he was able to ‘verify’ as ‘authentic’. Of these 7700 about 2700 are basic and the others are variations. This represents an accuracy of reporting of 0.45%, which by any standard of logic and fairness is an abysmal veracity figure, upon which almost 1.3 billion Muslims base their faith.
His father Abd-Allah, died before his birth. His mother Aminah (born in Medina) died when he was six years old and he was subsequently raised by his grandfather Abd al Muttalib. When the latter died, his upbringing was taken over by his paternal uncle Abu Talib. From his birth until the time that he was married, he was surrounded by his pagan people, the Quraysh. At the age of twenty-five, Muhammad was chosen by a independent and high-minded widow, who was fifteen years his senior; Khadijah, as a wealthy merchant’s widow, was operating a successful business that allowed Muhammad the luxury of an excessive amount of leisure time.
Historians and Muhammadan authors NEVER dwell upon the subject that, according to the traditions, Muhammad did not grow up in loving or secure surroundings. His mother gave him away to be suckled by Halima for several years before he was returned to her.
No child who grows up without love, affection, warmth, hugs, kisses, words of endearment and encouragement could possibly evolve into a normal human being. Muhammad was, as a result, a creature without empathy, a self centered loner, without compassion or having the ability to truly love others. The Ahadith and the Quran reflect this state of mind in numerous verses and instances as will be shown later.
Although Khadijah was of the Quraysh tribe, she nonetheless had already espoused the Hanif tradition (the belief in the One and Only God of Abraham). Muhammad was very much influenced by Khadijah’s Hanif background. She also closely associated with her Christian relatives – especially her cousin Waraqa bin Naufal bin Asad bin ‘Abdul ‘Uzza – as well as by the extremely important and pervasive ‘Jewish’ presence in that part of Arabia.
Since he was surrounded by monotheistic (Jewish, Christian and Hanif) influences, he was inspired to create a scripture for his Pagan Arab tribes similar to that of the People of the Book. His admiration for these Scriptures knows no bounds as reflected very clearly in numerous verses of the Quran. The fact that the Quran is replete with references to the Bible and Rabbinic literature is a singularly important testament to the great influence that the Jews had on the mind of Muhammad.
His primary intention at the beginning of his own perceived mission was to lead his Pagan Arabs into the light of the One and Only God of Abraham. He must have been in contact with both Jews and Christians – in Mecca, Madina and travels – learning from their Scriptures and/or reading some of them. The Hadith alludes in some pages to the fact that he was literate (Bukhari 1:114; 3:863) as well as two verses in the Quran to this effect (S25:4/5). Moreover and after all, how could he have been trading business on behalf of his wife, being able to sign contracts and count, if he were illiterate?
It is not unreasonable to conjecture that his repeated attendance at the cave of al Hira during the unrecorded period of fifteen years between his marriage to Khdijah till his first ‘revelation’, invariably alone – without his wife or friends – may have been the venue where and when he studied, contemplated and formulated his ideas or even being taught by some learned person in the Scripture of the People of the Book.
It is vital to point out yet once more, that his ‘inspirational’ period started fourteen years after he had married the monotheist (Hanif) Khadijah and not before.
Muhammad, after all, did not discover the concept of monotheism all by himself; on the contrary, it was the unique concept of monotheism that inspired Muhammad. Khadijah’s Hanif impact must have been enormous as reflected by the supreme importance that Muhammad and his Quran place upon Abraham and his progeny. In fact, one of the most revealing and significant verses in the Quran in this regard is 10: 94:
“If thou wert in doubt as to what We have revealed unto thee then ask those who have been reading the Book from before thee; the Truth hath indeed come to thee from thy Lord; so be in no wise of those in doubt.”
In the beginning, his mind was focused only on his Pagan Arabs. It was his wife Khadijah who supported and encouraged his belief of being the messenger of Allah. Very few authors make clear that, without her financial, moral and spiritual support, Muhammad would not have succeeded in his endeavours. Khadijah was actually the most important factor in allowing him to create his version of Islam.
After the first ‘revelations’ and his ability to convince others close to him of his ‘divine’ mission, he realized that he had an almost infallible tool at his disposal: he would create an Aya/Verse to justify every event or deed and attribute it to Allah’s angel Gabriel. He was after all, addressing the mostly superstitious, unlearned, illiterate and gullible pagan Arabs.
The Hadiths are replete with hundreds upon hundreds of expressions “such & such happened… and then it was revealed to Muhammad…” This, was the most incredibly simple but unchallengeable and most effective formula for deception ever conceived.
As he got stronger and bolder and started believing his own self-made delusions of his ‘divine mission’, his attention turned arrogantly and relentlessly towards converting the People of the Book to his own vision of the new cultic beliefs. Most of the ‘Jews’ and Christians knew better and would not yield an inch, leading ultimately to his revenge upon both of them.
The manner in which the Quran is written attests to an author who had not fully comprehended or understood the precepts of the Bible and its interpretations by the Hebrew sages. His total lack of grasping the meaning and value of the Sabbath as a ‘Day of Rest’ is a stellar example of a semi-educated and not fully learned person.
The manner in which the stories of the Bible – as depicted in the Quran – is totally chaotic, meaningless, rambling, and without a logical sequence, making them impossible to understand without detailed interpretations.
Nonetheless, he had extensive knowledge of Hebrew apocrypha and legends – as attested to by the astonishing amount of material, religious, folkloric, historical and legislative – which he plagiarized and had them recorded in his Quran in a different manner, such as the physical attributes of Adam, the story of Abraham and his father’s idols, Abraham & Isaac/Ishmael sacrifice story, the Joseph story, Zachariah, etc.
Most remarkable of all was the mention of Al Uzair (Ezra the Scribe) and Kifl, two important Jewish characters whose graves were turned into shrines by the Jews of Iraq. In spite of the very good probability that he was learning directly from informed scholars, he still managed to commit an enormous amount of erroneous information regarding names of characters and historical timeline displacements as well as conceptual misunderstandings.
The refusal of the ‘Jews’ and Christians to follow a theology that they knew of course to be a wholly – and very badly – plagiarized version of their own, turned Muhammad into their mortal enemy. From thenceforth, he started attacking them both verbally – in the Quranic verses – and physically. Thus he initiated the beginning of all subsequent confrontations, acts of aggression and theological attacks on the People of the Book that have continued to the present day.
It should be understood that as far as the Quran is concerned, the term ‘Jew’ represents a follower of a faith and not that of a nationality; Jews and Christians, The People of the Book, are, according to the Quran, religious sects. This misunderstanding has not changed in the last 1400 years.
The Muhammadan mind has never grasped the fact that the Jews are a NATIONALITY who belonged to a political entity, a STATE called JUDEA with its borders and government. This total lack of comprehension persists to this day among all of his followers, contributing enormously to the Middle East misunderstandings and confrontations.
According to Muhammadan historians – based only on unsubstantiated oral traditions – Muhammad used to seclude himself in a cave called (Hira) outside Mecca for meditation. It was during one of his meditations that he heard a voice commanding him: ” Proclaim thou in the name of thy Lord and cherisher who created, created Man from a congealed clot….” (Quran 96:1)
This was his first revelation; Muhammad had received his calling. Muhammadan tradition – not based upon the actual date, since Muhammad actually forgot on which day this incredible event occurred – fixed the date towards the end of Ramadan 610 CE. Subsequent revelations “descended” upon him and were attributed to the voice of the angel Gabriel (S2:97).
The gist of his message – especially during the Mecca period – was as prophetic and incisive as any that he had emulated from the Hebrew prophets who preceded him:
God is one; the creator of the Universe;
All Powerful; all Knowing; all Seeing;
There is a Day of Judgment;
There is Paradise (Jannah) for the good and Hell (Jahannam) for the evil.
These concepts, it must be pointed out here and now, were totally alien to the pagan Arabs except to those who were in contact with ‘Jews’ and Christians. It was as simple a message as it was powerful. He believed that he was a messenger (Rasul) of Allah and started preaching among his people.
Like all such revolutionary men, he encountered anger, disdain, disbelief and enmity. People in general, hate change since it is usually a dive into the unknown and the reformer is intending to overthrow the existing order of society which has its own entrenched self interested groups. He turned (Nadhir), Prophet of Doom, a Warner; he attempted to impress his listeners through the use of vivid and thrilling descriptions of Paradise and Hell.
Among the very first ‘believers’ was his wife Khadijah, predisposed through the influence of her Hanif (Monotheistic) upbringing. Following her were his cousin, the youthful Ali Ibn Abi Talib and his companion and friend, Abu Bakr. His greatest opponents were the aristocratic Umayyad branch of the Quraysh, his tribe. As the custodians of Mecca, al Ka’ba, and the multitudes of pagan deities that they were overseeing, they found that Muhammad’s message at the beginning countered their economic well-being. His message though, found fertile ground among the slaves and the dispossessed. Very slowly the ranks of his followers grew.
In about 619 CE, Khadijah, his wife died. By her, he had a number of children. Only one survived – Fatima, who became the famous wife of Ali. It was during this pre-Hijrah period that the second and most dramatic spiritual event allegedly occurred to Muhammad, namely the Isra (S17:1), the Nocturnal Journey from the Ka’ba (Sacred Mosque) to the Farthest Mosque. Muhammadan tradition alleges that this was followed by the Mi’raj – which is not in the Quran – the ascent to the seventh heaven.
According to Muhammadan interpretation of the Quran, the Farthest Mosque was Jerusalem. This tradition is not based on any fact or reality since there was no Temple or Mosque at Jerusalem in the days of Muhammmad to go to. The Romans in 135 CE had already destroyed the Jewish Temple and a church had been erected in its place by the Emperor Constantine c. 330 CE. In fact, the name of Jerusalem is never mentioned anywhere in the Quran. The Muhammadans incorporated this alleged ‘tradition’ much later, after the conquest of Palestinia by the invading Arabs.
In the days of Muhammad, Madina was the second most important city in the area after Mecca. It had a very important population of Jews and Arab converts. It was also the abode of two pagan tribes, the Khazraj and the Aws who were always at loggerheads and who had intimate relationships with Judaized Arabs through intermarriage.
Almost 13 years of Muhammad’s peaceful preaching in Mecca resulted in the abysmal fact that he was a total failure, since only about 70-80 people had embraced his cause while, in the meantime, he had incurred the enmity of most of his own tribe. In 622 CE, at the invitation of some members of the Khazraj – from Madina – and with the blessing of the ‘Jews’, Muhammad and one hundred of his followers escaped from Mecca and were allowed to reside amongst them in Madina. This was the famous Hijrah, migration. This move transformed Muhammad from a despised and persecuted man in Mecca to a welcomed chief in Madina.
It was during his sojourn in this city that Muhammad was slowly transformed from a peaceable ‘messenger’ to an astute statesman, a cunning theologian, and a seasoned pirate of the desert. He had come to the conclusion that he had no way of ‘converting’ the pagans through discussion and dialogue but only by force of arms and with only one ‘choice’ – that of conversion or death by the sword. This abhorrent and diabolical dogma was later inflicted upon millions of subjugated peoples on three continents.
In Madina, Muhammad created a ‘brotherhood’ whose loyalty was to himself alone as the apostle of Allah and bound all of them into one unit for defense and offence. This ‘brotherhood’ took complete precedence over all other ties and relationships; blood relations and loyalties to family and tribe were from then on completely obliterated to such an extent that a believing father would murder an unbelieving son and visa versa.
Most of the noble, decent and chivalrous characteristics of the pagan Arabs were discarded and replaced by a ‘theology’ based on the lust for plunder, slavery, hatred, destruction, and war. Muhammad became the undisputed leader of a Mafia type criminal brotherhood. Just like most criminal societies throughout history, he and his fellow thugs started to prey on the weakest elements among their victims. As far as the People of the Book were concerned, they became his first and easiest scapegoats; he and his followers systematically plundered, murdered or expelled them from the Arabian Peninsula. Their co-religionists in the subsequently conquered territories had the non choice of conversion or the humiliating acceptance of an ‘inferiority’ status by paying a heavy poll tax, the Jizzya.
According to the traditions, which are the one sided and unsubstantiated reports of alleged events, using Madina as his base of operations, Muhammad and three hundred of his followers attempted to intercept one of the Quraysh caravans on its return from Syria to Mecca. In Ramadan 624, at a place called Badr (eighty five miles south west of Madina), they met over allegedly one thousand Meccans and were victorious. Muhammadan historians – for obvious reasons – do not explain or point out that the true reason for his victory was that he broke one of the most forbidden acts during one of the holiest months among the pagan Arabs: Ramadan was a month of Truce during which, from time immemorial, all the Arab tribes were forbidden from any act of war. He and his followers broke that holy month of truce, ambushed and surprised his more numerous enemies with an act of infamy. Nonetheless, this single successful action was interpreted as a divine sanction of the new Muhammadan cult.
After Badr, a religion without a state was transformed into the beginnings of a state religion. Muhammadanism disguised as Islam became, for all intents and purposes, a militant religious polity.
Although at the beginning, he was welcomed and protected by both the ‘Jewish’ and pagan tribes of Madina, Muhammad, who could not peaceably convert most of the pagan Arabs after 13 years of hard work, should not have been at all surprised that it was extremely difficult to ‘convert’ the ‘Jews’ to his new theology. What was more distressing and irritating to him were their questions regarding his alleged prophet-hood and the satirical poems made by some ‘Jews’ about him and his ideas. The massacre and such wanton and treacherous slaughter of many of the most important men of Quraysh at Badr horrified and disgusted the sensibilities of the ‘Jews’. Muhammad’s anger at their refusal to believe in him – by which time he had convinced even himself of being the messenger of Allah – turned into an unrelenting and murderous hatred.
Slowly but with great resolve, he started formulating two agendas in his mind:
First, he was to take over of the property and wealth of all non ‘Muslim’ tribes, those of the ‘Jews’ and Christians by exterminating their men-folk, enslaving their women and children and taking over their lands and their wealth. This was a necessary economic war for the acquisition of the riches of these tribes for the purposes of propagating by bribery and ‘example’ the faith of Islam.
Second, he was to give his converted pagan Arabs, a scripture of their own with all the necessary religious ordinances.
It is very important to mention here and now, that the most eloquent, the longest and most verbose Surahs (twenty seven) of the Quran, were formulated while he was in Madina among the Jews. They touched on the core requirements of the new faith regarding religious law, divorce, fasting, alms giving, social and political ordinances etc. Almost every one of which was either an echo or a modification of those in the Hebrew Bible and Scriptures or the New Testament. In 626 CE, he started the process of disfranchising both the Jewish and Christian Arab tribes by first forcing the Jewish tribe of Banu al Nadir into exile from Medina (Baladuri, Futuh).
Siege of Madina…
Another benchmark encounter was the siege Madina by the Meccans and their allies in 627 CE. It is recounted that at the advice of a Persian follower, the Muslims had a trench dug round the city. This was an unusual and unmanly type of warfare as far as the Bedouins were concerned. There was not the usual man-to-man confrontation. They were disgusted and disheartened at this type of ‘cowardly’ form of war. After about a month of utterly futile ’siege’, they withdrew their forces. Considering that the forces arrayed against each other must have been in the thousands, the loss on both sides was an extremely low figure of about twenty men. This battle was described in the Quran 33:9/25 [of course, and as will be shown repeatedly, these verses were 'revealed' after the event to explain and justify Muhammad's deed].
After the siege had been lifted, Muhammadan historians allege that the Jews of Madina and others had sided with the enemies of Muhammad to betray him. As usual, we only have the Muhammadan version of these events, that of the victorious, and nothing from the other side, the victims, the ‘Jews’, since they were completely eradicated or absorbed by the new power. How true or untrue this allegation was, can only be deduced from subsequent acts committed by the Muhammadan Arabs against other ‘Jewish’, Christian and pagan tribes. It must be pointed out here once more, that these ‘Jewish’ and Christian tribes were almost entirely native, indigenous Arabs just like the ‘Muhammadans’ who had as much right to exist in Arabia as the new so-called ‘Muslim’ polity.
Process of elimination…
Let us now look at the historical record as written by the Muhammadans themselves.
According to them, Muhammad conducted a further systematic campaign of elimination against the Madina ‘Jews’. The first to fall victim were the Banu Qainuqa who surrendered without a fight. But Muhammad, nonetheless, condemned them to death. They were fortunate to be saved by the bravery and the intercession of the leader of the Aus tribe Abdullah b Ubayy b Salul who actually forced Muhammad to desist from his diabolical and evil intentions. Instead, they were dispossessed, and the followers of Muhammad in Madina (Emigrants) were put on their land. The remaining members of this ‘Jewish’ tribe were offered the alternative of conversion or death which was actually contrary to the spirit and letter of the Quran itself regarding the People of the Book (S2:256). They were the first but not the last to be offered this extreme form of ‘no choice’.
The next to fall victim to Muhammad’s ‘compassion’ were the Banu Qurayzah. Although they too surrendered, they were not fortunate in having a champion to save them from his ‘mercies’, which resulted in the slaughter of seven hundred to nine hundred able-bodied men and young boys of their leading tribe and the enslavement of the women and children.
In investigating a crime scene, the detective can, in many cases, get more information from what is missing than what he can actually see. The above events were not even battles, and that is why they had not been glorified in the mythology of the Muhammadans. They were actually acts of underhanded and treacherous slaughter. Subsequent events show a sequence of deliberately and systematically conducted massacres by the Muhammadans against the ‘Jewish’ and Christian tribes of Arabia for the acquisition of their fertile oases and cultivated lands, their property and the enslavement of their women and children (Quran 33:26/7).
These acts were primarily economic in character to amass wealth for the rising power of Muhammadanism so as to be able to expand itself and bring in more converts, mainly through bribery. Aside from the economic advantages, Muhammad was also eradicating and subjugating the two monotheistic religions that could continue to compete with his ‘Islamization’ of the peninsula. Muhammadan historians demonise both the ‘Jews’ and Christians of Arabia, by alleging ‘treason’ or ‘perfidy’ on their part and hence giving themselves the moral high ground and therefore excuse their piratical acts and falsification of history.
The ‘Jews’ of Madina who had harboured and protected Muhammad against the Meccans became the convenient and eternal scapegoats of ‘Muslim’ mythology and hatemongering. The above conclusions can be verified and buttressed by the subsequent events as mentioned in their history.
A third major expulsion was conducted against the ‘Jews’ of Khaybar from their fertile oasis north of Madina in 629 CE. These steps were the beginning of the nationalization of Muhammadan Islam in the Arabian Peninsula. This was not the Arabization to which Muhammadan and Arab historians have been deliberately and falsely alluding to, since the ‘Jewish’ and Christian tribes of the peninsula were themselves indigenous and just as much native Arabs as the so called Muhammadans who were dispossessing them.
By using the word ‘Arabization’, the Muhammadan historians are trying to falsely insinuate that the Jewish/Judaized and Christian tribes were foreign, which of course they evidently were not. The systematic destruction of the Jewish and Christian communities was a process to achieve three major objectives:
Economic – to finance Muhammad’s wars of aggression.
Political – to increase his following through bribery and rewards of looting and raping.
Religious – to eliminate the only true witnesses to the fact that Muhammad was a false prophet whose claims about the ancestry of the Arabs were totally untrue.
The new ‘faith’…
It was during his sojourn in Madina that Muhammad formulated most of the Quranic requirements demanded from the ‘Muslim’ faithful. He was ultimately forced to the conclusion that he could only succeed in ‘converting’ the Quraysh to his theology by keeping most of the pagan religious traditions except one; that there would be no other gods but Allah to be venerated. He ‘Islamised’ the following pagan traditions: the Ka’bah remained the centre of the Hajj but now only for the followers of Muhammadanism. He sanctioned the kissing of the Black Stone in the Ka’bah, just as it had been in the days of the Jahilyah. Ramadan was fixed as the month of fasting and remained as holy as before Islam. Almost every other pagan fetish, including the slaughter of cattle, was incorporated into the ‘new’ religion to accommodate the Quraysh.
By keeping Mecca as the centre of the new religion, he instantly appeased and satisfied the commercial and financial requirements of the Umayyads who were now much more disposed towards ‘Islam’ than before, and conveniently flocked to his banner. In Surah 9:28, the territory around the Ka’ba was declared Haram (Forbidden/Sacred), just as it was before Muhammad. This Surah was later falsely interpreted by Muslim theologians as prohibiting all others but Muhammadans from approaching the Ka’ba, hence disallowing ‘Jews’ and Christians from its vicinity.
This mendacious formula was later extended by the most ‘racist’ Khalifah of all, Umar Ibn AlKhattab (the St Paul of Muhammadanism), to prohibit all non-Muslim Arabs from the whole of the Jazirah, declaring it holy territory for Muhammadans only. All these deliberate and false misinterpretations of the Quranic verses were made for political and sectarian reasons and had absolutely nothing to do with either the letter or the spirit of the verses being quoted.
The pagan Arabs had no tradition regarding the origin of the Ka’bah. Muhammad himself created one, which maintains that it was originally built by Adam according to a celestial prototype. After the Deluge, it was re-built by Abraham and Ishmael (Quran 2:125/8); this invented tradition – not the Quran – continues, that while in the process of rebuilding, the angel Gabriel gave the Black Stone to Ishmael and Abraham. This is of course pure mythology since the Arabs, before the Quran, had absolutely no tradition or knowledge of Adam or Gabriel nor that they were descended from Abraham and Ishmael.
Another religious requirement that Muhammad instituted upon the followers of the new faith while he sojourned in Madina was the fast day of Ashurah (Tenth of Muharram). This was an adaptation of Yom Kippur (Jewish Day of Atonement) as mentioned by Al Bukhari in his Sahih.
Leviticus 16:29. “And this shall be a statute forever to you; that in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, you shall afflict your souls, and do no work at all, whether it be one of your own country, or a stranger who sojourns among you”
Consolidation and Triumph…
In 630/1, Muhammad concluded peace treaties with the Christian tribes of Al Aqabah and the Jewish tribes in the oases of Maqna and others, northwest of al Jazirah (al Nufud). The native Christians and Jews became ‘clients’ of the Muslims and under their protection. In consideration of this ‘protection’, the Christian and Jewish tribes had to pay a Jizyah (Poll tax). The reader should be reminded that before Islam these tribes were not in need of any ‘protection’ and had existed there independently for centuries. It is also very important to point out here that these peace treaties were unilaterally, and with complete treachery and utter contempt to the will of Muhammad, abrogated by Umar Ibn Al Khattab, the second Khalifah.
Because of the power and wealth that Muhammad had accumulated in the previous years, more and more Arabian tribes were bribed into flocking to his banner mostly out of convenience and not out of conviction as would be proved shortly afterwards. All had to profess the new Islamic faith and pay the Zakah (Tax for the poor).
A year later, Muhammad made a triumphant and conquering entry in Mecca, at the head of the annual pilgrimage by breaking the agreement he had made only a few months earlier with the Quraysh at Hudaybiyyah. He was now the undisputed secular head of a newly formed state as well as its religious leader; this was the beginning of the Islamic theocracy.
Muhammad had at last succeeded in uniting – by the sword – the hitherto untamable pagan Arabian tribes into one entity based on a single religion and not through blood. Allah was now made the supreme head of this state with Muhammad as his earthly representative, his vice regent.
As the messenger of Allah, he held both absolute temporal and spiritual authority. In principle, his followers became the Muslim Brotherhood; this ‘entity’ superseded all tribal loyalties and affiliations, the blood relationships. Three months later, on 8th of June 632, after suffering a very severe headache, Muhammad died at the age of 63.
Since he did not arrange for a successor to follow in his footsteps, he left his followers a legacy of sectarianism, dissention, conflict and hatred that exist until to day. It is the ultimate irony that he left the Muhammadans the very sectarianism that he had fulminated against both in his Quran and the Ahadith regarding the People of the Book.
I. Q. Rassooli is the author of “Lifting the Veil: The True Faces of Muhammad & Islam"