How two forms of temporary marriage, a vile and immoral Allah-sanctioned practice of Muhammad, are being practised by Muslims, both Shiites and Sunnis, today...
Misyar and Mut’ah are two Arabic words with few different meanings and one of their meanings is pleasure/Temporary Marriage too; in other words, marriage for pleasure for a certain period of time. However, the practice of Misyar and Mut’ah are very close and similar with each other but with minor differences.
Misyar (Temporary marriage) is common amongst Sunni Muslims; but there are some rules. It is a lesser form than normal marriage. In this marriage, a man is allowed to have a wife, but wife is not bound to live with her husband permanently. After the Misyar marriage has been conducted, the wife can live at her parent’s home, and her husband can visit her according to a predetermined schedule. This institution of marriage is being practiced, more frequently, in Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Syria, after their muftis (Islamic scholars) permitted it in 1999.
Mut’ah is another form of temporary marriage, widely practiced by Shia Muslims, but abolished amongst Sunni Muslims. Sunnis claim that Mut’ah was practiced by Prophet Muhammad himself, but later on, Omar, the second caliph of Islam, forbade it.
The requirements for the Mut’ah marriage are simple for a man. Mut’ah marriage can be held with consent between a Muslim man and a woman without the presence of any witnesses. The husband is not bound to give any dowry to his wife. In this marriage, a specified period of validity for the marriage is mentioned in the contract. It is common in modern Iran and, also in Iraq after the ouster of Saddam Husain.
Reasons for practicing
In defense, Muslims say that the necessity of temporary marriage occurred during the time of battles (jihad), when the companions of Muhammad during his life time were busy in expanding Islam. The jihadists, far away from their homes and wives, were pleasing their prophet and Allah, and in return, a pleased Allah allowed them to contract temporary marriage in order to avoid illegal sexual relationship. On the other hand, there are Islamic sources that prove Muhammad himself had contracted temporary marriages. In this respect, the Quran, too, support temporary marriage in favor for Jihadis (extremists) in chapter 4 verse 24:
And married women except those your right hands possess. The decree of Allah upon you. And lawful to you are beyond these, that you seek them with your property, desiring chastity, not unlawful sexual intercourse. So for whatever you enjoy from them, give them their due compensation as an obligation. And there is no blame upon you for what you mutually agree to beyond the obligation. Indeed, Allah is ever Knowing and Wise. (Quran 4:24)
On the contrary, some hadiths condemn this verse and try to tell us that temporary marriage is nothing but another form of adultery and fornication. Thus, Omar, the second caliph of Islam, forbade it during his caliphal tenure.
Some Hadiths are as follows:
Sunan al Kabeera Volume 7, p. 06:
Imam of Ahlul Sunnah Abu Bakr narrates, Jabir was asked, Ibn Zubayr tells people to refrain from Mut'ah, whilst Ibn Abbas says it is permissible. Jabir replied "we practised Mut'ah during the lifetime of Rasulullah(s) and Abu Bakr. When Umar became khalifa he delivered a sermon "Rasulullah(s) and the Quran have not changed, during the life of Rasulullah(s) there were two types of Mut'ah, I ban them and shall punish one who breaks this, one is Mut'ah with women, and I shall stone anyone who does this, the other is Mut'ah of Hajj.
Lughath al-Hadith Volume 4, p. 9:
Two Mut'ah's, the Mut'ah of Hajj and Nikah Mut'ah were practised during the lifetime of Rasulullah (s), [Rasulullah (s) deemed both correct] but I make them both haraam" - These words of Hadhrath Umar do not mean that he was making it haraam of his own accord, since what is halaal or haraam is limited to the realms of the Shari'ah not Umar, rather he was stating 'I shall declare the prohibition so as to dispel any doubts from amongst the people.
Sahih Muslim, Book 007, Number 2874:
Abd Nadra reported: While I was in the company of Jibir, a person came and said: There is difference of opinion amomg Ibn Abbas and Ibn Zubair about two Mut'as (benefits, Tamattul in Hajj and temporary marriage with women), whereupon jibir said: We have been doing this during the lifetime of Allah's Messenger (way peace be upon him), and then 'Umar forbade us to do so, and we never resorted to them.
Sahih Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 62, Number 51:
Narrated Abu Jamra: I heard Ibn Abbas (giving a verdict) when he was asked about the Mut'a with the women, and he permitted it (Nikah-al-Mut'a). On that a freed slave of his said to him, "That is only when it is very badly needed and women are scarce." On that, Ibn 'Abbas said: "Yes".
Similarly in the Subcontinent, especially in the Islamic state of Pakistan, this concept of marriage is not only considered a crime but also kicked out from the society. This is a clear proof that Muhammad, the founder of Islam, was addicted to this practiced; he and his Allah never knew that this nasty and filthy practice of his prophet, would be assumed as “contemptuous” among his Ummah (followers) in the future.
Therefore, the concept and law of temporary marriage is not mentioned anywhere in the constitution of Pakistan. Even after this, the residents of Pakistan are proud to be called Muslims. They will never like to be associated with any religion other than Islam. Muhammad is still the foremost exemplary person for them. It means that the Muslims of Pakistan are not mentally stable.
The above-quoted hadiths prove that Caliph Omar forbade this law, and whoever would try to follow this Sunnah of the prophet, he will be stoned to death. This is a clear proof that every action of Muhammad does not bear the hallmark of perfection for all time; in fact, some of his actions were also condemned by his own closest of companions within years after his death.
Saudi Arabia, Syria and Egypt
In these countries, Misyar, the temporary marriage, is being practiced legally since 1999. On the other hand, in Iran and Iraq, Shias are also practicing the other form of temporary-marriages, what they call Mut’ah.
Here, the readers should bear in mind the point of Muslim’s accusation, indeed condemnation, against the West that they don’t have modesty towards their women; prostitution is common; women have no respect, and so on. But what about the Arab sheikhs (rich man), who have multiple wives, and now they are also following temporary marriages. When men have multiple wives and concubines, plus the benefits for temporary marriages, they don’t need to open brothels and bars openly in their own countries; they have their own brothels right in their homes.
Muslims offer many different reasons while trying to make the institution of Temporary-Marriages in Islam rational. They claim it was a decent way in the lifetime of Muhammad, but later on, Omar thought, just within a few years, it as uncivilized and disrespectful practice. As a result, he abolished that Islamic law, despite it being an Allah-sanctioned Sunnah of the prophet, equating it with adultery.
So many differences in sources, whether valid or not, eventually make their defense irrational. It is undoubtedly a very immoral and indecent way of life, which Islam, through Muhammad’s own practice with Allah’s sanction in the Quran, has shown to this world.